32 resultados para Bunyaviridae


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Tesis (Maestría en Ciencias Biológicas con Especialidad en Entomología Médica) UANL

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Tesis ( Doctorado en Ciencias Biológicas con Especialidad en Ecología) UANL

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Até o presente momento, estudos moleculares para os vírus do grupo C (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) não foram publicados. O presente trabalho determinou as seqüências nucleotídicas completas para os segmento ARN pequenos (P-ARN) e a seqüencias parciais para os segmentos de ARN médio (M-ARN) dos vírus do grupo C. A seqüencia completa do segmento P-ARNvariou de 915 a 926 nucleotídeos, e revelou organização genômica semelhante em comparação aos demais ortobunyavírus. Baseado nos 705 nt do gene N, os membros do grupo C foram distribuídos em três grupos filogenéticos principais, com exceção do vírus Madrid que foi posicionado fora destes três grupos. A análise da cepa BeH 5546 do vírus Caraparu revelou que o mesmo apresenta seu segmento P-ARN semelhante ao do vírus Oriboca , sendo um vírus rearranjado em natureza. Em adição, a análise dos 345 nt do gene Gn para sete vírus do grupo C e para a cepa BeH 5546, revelou uma diferente topologia filogenética, sugerindo um padrão de rearranjo genético entre estes vírus. Estes achados representam as primeiras evidências de rearranjo genético em natureza entre os vírus do grupo C, dos quais vários são patógenos humanos. Finalmente, nossos dados genéticos corroboraram dados de relacionamento antigênico entre esses vírus determinados utilizando métodos sorológicos (testes de fixação de complemento, inibição da hemaglutinação e neutralização), sugerindo que a associação de dados informativos aos níveis molecular, sorológico e eco-epidemiológico podem contribuir para o melhor entendimento da epidemiologia molecular dos ortobunyavírus.

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Poucas informações estão disponíveis até o momento sobre os vírus do sorogrupo Gamboa (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus), desta forma, foi realizado, neste trabalho, estudo filogenético dos membros do sorogrupo Gamboa entre si e com outros orthobunyavírus ao nível gene Gn (M-RNA), além de infecção experimental em pintos recém nascidos da espécie Gallus gallus domesticus com a cepa Be AN 439546 do Vírus Gamboa (VGAM), e estudo sorológico em aves, outros animais silvestres e humanos de Tucuruí – Pará. A análise filogenética dos vírus do sorogrupo Gamboa demonstrou que esses vírus são geneticamente mais relacionados com membros do grupo Turlock e menos com os do grupo Simbu, e foram distribuídos em dois clados distintos (I e II), que estão de acordo com a atual classificação sorológica, de modo que o clado I inclui o complexo Gamboa e o clado II o complexo Alajuela. A cepa Be AN 439546 do VGAM apresentou tropismo pelo pulmão e fígado de pintos recém nascidos experimentalmente infectados, sendo a replicação viral nesses órgãos confirmada por imunohistoquímica, o que demonstra que o VGAM replica-se nessa ave. A detecção de anticorpos inibidores da hemaglutinação contra o VGAM e a confirmação por teste de neutralização em plasma de aves silvestres reforça a hipótese de que esses animais constituem o principal hospedeiro de amplificação no ciclo de manutenção do VGAM. Estudos moleculares do genoma completo dos vírus do sorogrupo Gamboa, assim como sobre a ecoepidemiologia do vetor e dos hospedeiros (principalmente aves), para o ciclo de replicação dos vírus, são importantes para confirmar as informações já existentes sobre esses vírus.

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As cepas do Virus Melao (VMEL), BE AR 8033 e BE AR 633512 foram isoladas de mosquitos Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) scapularis, em Belém- PA (1955) e Alta Floresta do Oeste- RO (2000), respectivamente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar molecularmente as cepas BE AR 633512 e BE AR 8033 e realizar estudos histopatológicos, bioquímicos e imunológicos comparativos em hamsters dourados (Mesocricetus auratus). Hamsters mostraram suscetibilidade às cepas do VMEL. A viremia em hamsters para BE AR 633512 ocorreu do 3º ao 6º dias pós-infecção (dpi.), e para a cepa BE AR 8033 ocorreu no 2º dpi. Anticorpos neutralizantes para ambas as cepas foram detectados a partir de 5 dpi., e se mantiveram até 30 dpi. As cepas testadas alteraram os marcadores bioquímicos AST, ALT e uréia, enquanto que a creatinina só apresentou alteração estatisticamente significante nos animais infectados com a cepa viral BE AR 633512, em comparação aos animais controles não infectados. Alterações histopatológicas foram observadas no SNC, fígado, rim e baço dos hamsters infectados pelas cepas do VMEL, sendo a infecção nesses órgãos confirmada por imunohistoquímica. A cepa BE AR 633512 foi mais virulenta e patogênica para hamsters que a cepa BE AR 8033. A análise genética dos genes N, Gn e Gc revelou que para os genes N e Gn, a cepa BE AR 8033 e do protótipo VMEL (TRVL 9375) são mais geneticamente relacionados. Para o gene Gc, a cepa BE AR 8033 é mais relacionada com a cepa BE AR 633512, sendo que esta última cepa apresentou maior variabilidade genética, principalmente no gene Gn com várias substituições de aminoácidos, mas as mutações no gene Gc provavelmente foram responsáveis pelo aumento da virulência e patogenicidade em hamsters.

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O Virus Oropouche (VORO; Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) é um dos mais importantes arbovírus que infecta humanos na Amazônia brasileira, e é causador da febre do Oropouche. Entre 1961 e 2009, um grande número de epidemias foi registrado em diferentes centros urbanos dos Estados Brasileiros do Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhão, Pará, Rondônia e Tocantins, e também no Panamá, Peru e Trinidad & Tobago. Este trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver um estudo retrospectivo dos aspectos epidemiológicos e moleculares do VORO enfatizando sua distribuição, a dinâmica das epidemias ocorridas no período, bem como a dispersão de diferentes genótipos na América Latina e no Brasil como contribuição à epidemiologia molecular do VORO. Para tanto 66 isolamentos do VORO pertencentes ao acervo do Instituto Evandro Chagas foram propagados em camundongos e em cultura de células VERO, seguida da extração do RNA viral e obtenção do cDNA por RTPCR; os amplicons foram purificados e submetidos ao sequenciamento nucleotídico para análises moleculares e evolução, incluindo o rearranjo genético, estudo de relógio molecular e análise de dispersão viral. Foi demonstrada a presença de quatro linhagens distintas do VORO na Amazônia brasileira (genótipos I, II, III e IV), sendo os genótipos I e II, respectivamente os mais frequentemente encontrados em áreas da Amazônia ocidental e oriental. Esses e o genótipo III estão constantemente evoluindo, mediante o mecanismo “boom and boost” que resulta na emergência seguida de substituição das sublinhagens (subgenótipos) circulantes por outras mais recentes. O genótipo III do VORO, previamente encontrado somente no Panamá, foi descrito na Amazônia e Sudeste do Brasil. Os dados obtidos pela análise filogenética comparativa das topologias para os segmentos PRNA e MRNA sugerem que o VORO utiliza o rearranjo genético como mecanismo de geração de biodiversidade viral, sendo o genótipo I o mais estável e o II o mais instável e, portanto, mais sensível às pressões evolutivas; foi reconhecido um novo genótipo do VORO neste estudo em amostras isoladas em Manaus no ano de 1980, que foi denominado de genótipo IV. O estudo do relógio molecular mostrou que a emergência do VORO se deu no Estado do Pará provavelmente há 223 anos e daí ao longo dos anos se dispersou pela PanAmazônia bem como para o Caribe, sendo que o genótipo I foi o que originou os demais genótipos do VORO.

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Os flebovírus (família Bunyaviridae; gênero Phlebovirus), possuem importância considerável em saúde publica, pois podem causar uma variedade de síndromes clínicas. Na região amazônica brasileira até o momento já foram isolados 23 flebovírus sendo que quatro se destacam por terem sido isolados de humanos: Virus Alenquer, Virus Candiru, Virus Morumbi e Virus Serra Norte. Estes mais o Virus Itaituba, isolado de Didelphis marsupialis, fazem parte do Complexo Candiru (grupo Candiru) e foram utilizados para estudos de caracterização genética e de infecção experimental em hamsters dourados (Mesocricetus auratus). Os Hamsters mostraram-se suscetíveis a infecção por esses flebovírus, apesar de não terem apresentado sinais de doença. A análise histopatológica demonstrou aspectos lesionais no fígado, nos rins, no baço, nos pulmões e no sistema nervoso central, sendo as lesões mais intensas no fígado comprovadas pela presença dos antígenos virais empregando a técnica de imunohistoquímica. A análise das seqüências nucleotídicas parciais dos segmentos PRNA e MRNA obtidas para os cinco flebovírus estudados mostraram maior similaridade genética entre si do que com outros membros do gênero Phlebovirus. Sendo as mesmas geneticamente mais relacionadas ao Virus Punta Toro. Filogeneticamente, independentemente do segmento genômico analisado, os cinco flebovírus constituem um grupo monofilético, sendo que a análise pelo método de máxima verossimilhança demonstrou diferentes origens evolutivas para os segmentos de RNA o que sugere a ocorrência de rearranjo genético em natureza entre estes cinco flebovírus amazônicos.

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Puumala virus (PUUV) is the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Finland has the highest documented incidence of NE with around 1000 cases diagnosed annually. PUUV is also found in other Scandinavian countries, Central Europe and the European part of Russia. PUUV belongs to the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses each carried by a specific host that is persistently and asymptomatically infected by the virus. PUUV is carried by the bank voles (Myodes glareolus, previously known as Clethrionomys glareolus). Hantaviruses have co-evolved with their carrier rodents for millions of years and these host animals are the evolutionary scene of hantaviruses. In this study, PUUV sequences were recovered from bank voles captured in Denmark and Russian Karelia to study the evolution of PUUV in Scandinavia. Phylogenetic analysis of these strains showed a geographical clustering of genetic variants following the presumable migration pattern of bank voles during the recolonization of Scandinavia after the last ice age approximately 10 000 years ago. The currently known PUUV genome sequences were subjected to in-depth phylogenetic analyses and the results showed that genetic drift seems to be the major mechanism of PUUV evolution. In general, PUUV seems to evolve quite slowly following a molecular clock. We also found evidence for recombination in the evolution of some genetic lineages of PUUV. Viral microevolution was studied in controlled virus transmission in colonized bank voles and changes in quasispecies dynamics were recorded as the virus was transmitted from one animal to another. We witnessed PUUV evolution in vivo, as one synonymous mutation became repeatedly fixed in the viral genome during the experiment. The detailed knowledge on the PUUV diversity was used to establish new sensitive and specific detection methods for this virus. Direct viral invasion of the hypophysis was demonstrated for the first time in a lethal case of NE. PUUV detection was done by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and RT-nested-PCR of the autopsy tissue samples.

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Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV), a member of genus Tospovirus in the family Bunyaviridae, infects a large number of leguminosae and solanaceae plants in India. With a view to elucidate the function of nonstructural protein, NSs encoded by the small RNA genome (S RNA), the NSs protein of GBNV-tomato (Karnataka) [1] was over-expressed in E.coli and purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. The purified rNSs protein exhibited an RNA stimulated NTPase activity. Further, this activity was metal ion dependent and was inhibited by adenosine 5' (beta, gamma imido) triphosphate, an ATP analog. The rNSs could also hydrolyze dATP.Interestingly, in addition to the NTPase and dATPase activities, the rNSs exhibited ATP independent 5' RNA/DNA phosphatase activity that was completely inhibited by AMP. The 5' alpha phosphate could be removed from ssDNA, ssRNA, dsDNA and dsRNA thus confirming that rNSs has a novel 5' alpha phosphatase activity. K189A mutation in the Walker motif A (GxxxxGKT) resulted in complete loss of ATPase activity, but the 5'phosphatase activity was unaffected. On the other hand, D159A mutation in the Walker motif B (DExx) resulted in partial loss of both the activities. These results demonstrate for the first time that NSs is a bifunctional enzyme, which could participate in viral movement, replication or in suppression of the host defense mechanism.

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Hantaviruses, members of the genus Hantavirus in the Bunyaviridae family, are enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses with tri-segmented genome of negative polarity. In humans, hantaviruses cause two diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), which vary in severity depending on the causative agent. Each hantavirus is carried by a specific rodent host and is transmitted to humans through excreta of infected rodents. The genome of hantaviruses encodes four structural proteins: the nucleocapsid protein (N), the glycoproteins (Gn and Gc), and the polymerase (L) and also the nonstructural protein (NSs). This thesis deals with the functional characterization of hantavirus N protein with regard to its structure. Structural studies of the N protein have progressed slowly and the crystal structure of the whole protein is still not available, therefore biochemical assays coupled with bioinformatical modeling proved essential for studying N protein structure and functions. Presumably, during RNA encapsidation, the N protein first forms intermediate trimers and then oligomers. First, we investigated the role of N-terminal domain in the N protein oligomerization. The results suggested that the N-terminal region of the N protein forms a coiled-coil, in which two antiparallel alpha helices interact via their hydrophobic seams. Hydrophobic residues L4, I11, L18, L25 and V32 in the first helix and L44, V51, L58 and L65 in the second helix were crucial for stabilizing the structure. The results were consistent with the head-to-head, tail-to-tail model for hantavirus N protein trimerization. We demonstrated that an intact coiled-coil structure of the N terminus is crucial for the oligomerization capacity of the N protein. We also added new details to the head-to-head, tail-to-tail model of trimerization by suggesting that the initial step is based on interaction(s) between intact intra-molecular coiled-coils of the monomers. We further analyzed the importance of charged aa residues located within the coiled-coil for the N protein oligomerization. To predict the interacting surfaces of the monomers we used an upgraded in silico model of the coiled-coil domain that was docked into a trimer. Next the predicted target residues were mutated. The results obtained using the mammalian two-hybrid assay suggested that conserved charged aa residues within the coiled-coil make a substantial contribution to the N protein oligomerization. This contribution probably involves the formation of interacting surfaces of the N monomers and also stabilization of the coiled-coil via intramolecular ionic bridging. We proposed that the tips of the coiled-coils are the first to come into direct contact and thus initiate tight packing of the three monomers into a compact structure. This was in agreement with the previous results showing that an increase in ionic strength abolished the interaction between N protein molecules. We also showed that residues having the strongest effect on the N protein oligomerization are not scattered randomly throughout the coiled-coil 3D model structure, but form clusters. Next we found evidence for the hantaviral N protein interaction with the cytoplasmic tail of the glycoprotein Gn. In order to study this interaction we used the GST pull-down assay in combination with mutagenesis technique. The results demonstrated that intact, properly folded zinc fingers of the Gn protein cytoplasmic tail as well as the middle domain of the N protein (that includes aa residues 80 248 and supposedly carries the RNA-binding domain) are essential for the interaction. Since hantaviruses do not have a matrix protein that mediates the packaging of the viral RNA in other negatve stranded viruses (NSRV), hantaviral RNPs should be involved in a direct interaction with the intraviral domains of the envelope-embedded glycoproteins. By showing the N-Gn interaction we provided the evidence for one of the crucial steps in the virus replication at which RNPs are directed to the site of the virus assembly. Finally we started analysis of the N protein RNA-binding region, which is supposedly located in the middle domain of the N protein molecule. We developed a model for the initial step of RNA-binding by the hantaviral N protein. We hypothesized that the hantaviral N protein possesses two secondary structure elements that initiate the RNA encapsidation. The results suggest that amino acid residues (172-176) presumably act as a hook to catch vRNA and that the positively charged interaction surface (aa residues 144-160) enhances the initial N-RNA interacation. In conclusion, we elucidated new functions of hantavirus N protein. Using in silico modeling we predicted the domain structure of the protein and using experimental techniques showed that each domain is responsible for executing certain function(s). We showed that intact N terminal coiled-coil domain is crucial for oligomerization and charged residues located on its surface form a interaction surface for the N monomers. The middle domain is essential for interaction with the cytoplasmic tail of the Gn protein and RNA binding.

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Hantaviruses are one of the five genera of the vector-borne virus family Bunyaviridae. While other members of the family are transmitted via arthropods, hantaviruses are carried and transmitted by rodents and insectivores. Occasional transmission to humans occurs via inhalation of aerosolized rodent excreta. When transmitted to man hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, in Eurasia, mortality ~10%) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, in the Americas, mortality ~40%). The single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome of hantaviruses is in segments S, M and L that respectively encode for nucleocapsid (N), glycoproteins Gn and Gc, and RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp or L protein). The genome segments, encapsidated by N protein to form ribonucleoprotein (RNP), are enclosed inside a lipid envelope decorated by spikes formed of Gn and Gc. The focus of this study was to understand the mechanisms and interactions through which the virion is formed and maintained. We observed that when extracted from virions both Gn and Gc favor homo- over hetero-oligomerization. The minimal glycoprotein complexes extracted from virion by detergent were observed, by using ultracentrifugation and gel filtration, to be tetrameric Gn and homodimeric Gc. These results led us to suggest a model where tetrameric Gn complexes are interconnected through homodimeric Gc units to form the grid-like surface architecture described for hantaviruses. This model was found to correlate with the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of virion surface created using cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET). The 3D-density map showed the spike complex formed of Gn and Gc to be 10 nm high and to display a four-fold symmetry with dimensions of 15 nm times 15 nm. This unique square-shaped complex on a roughly round virion creates a hitch for the assembly, since a sphere cannot be broken into rectangles. Thus additional interactions are likely required for the virion assembly. In cryo-ET we observed that the RNP makes occasional contacts to the viral membrane, suggesting an interaction between the spike and RNP. We were able to demonstrate this interaction using various techniques, and showed that both Gn and Gc contribute to the interaction. This led us to suggest that in addition to the interactions between Gn and Gc, also the interaction between spike and RNP is required for assembly. We found galectin-3 binding protein (referred to as 90K) to co-purify with the virions and showed an interaction between 90K and the virion. Analysis of plasma samples taken from patients hospitalized for Puumala virus infection showed increased concentrations of 90K in the acute phase and the increased 90K level was found to correlate with several parameters that reflect the severity of acute HFRS. The results of these studies confirmed, but also challenged some of the dogmas on the structure and assembly of hantaviruses. We confirmed that Gn and RNP do interact, as long assumed. On the other hand we demonstrated that the glycoproteins Gn and Gc exist as homo-oligomers or appear in large hetero-oligomeric complexes, rather than form primarily heterodimers as was previously assumed. This work provided new insight into the structure and assembly of hantaviruses.

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Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are enveloped viruses incorporating a segmented, negative-sense RNA genome. Each hantavirus is carried by its specific host, either a rodent or an insectivore (shrew), in which the infection is asymptomatic and persistent. In humans, hantaviruses cause Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. In Finland, Puumala virus (genus Hantavirus) is the causative agent of NE, a mild form of HFRS. The HFRS-type diseases are often associated with renal failure and proteinuria that might be mechanistically explained by infected kidney tubular cell degeneration in patients. Previously, it has been shown that non-pathogenic hantavirus, Tula virus (TULV), could cause programmed cell death, apoptosis, in cell cultures. This suggested that the infected kidney tubular degeneration could be caused directly by virus replication. In the first paper of this thesis the molecular mechanisms involved in TULV-induced apoptosis was further elucidated. A virus replication-dependent down-regulation of ERK1/2, concomitantly with the induced apoptosis, was identified. In addition, this phenomenon was not restricted to TULV or to non-pathogenic hantaviruses in general since also a pathogenic hantavirus, Seoul virus, could inhibit ERK1/2 activity. Hantaviruses consist of membrane-spanning glycoproteins Gn and Gc, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein) and nucleocapsid protein N, which encapsidates the viral genome, and thus forms the ribonucleoprotein (RNP). Interaction between the cytoplasmic tails of viral glycoproteins and RNP is assumed to be the only means how viral genetic material is incorporated into infectious virions. In the second paper of this thesis, it was shown by immunoprecipitation that viral glycoproteins and RNP interact in the purified virions. It was further shown that peptides derived from the cytoplasmic tails (CTs) of both Gn and Gc could bind RNP and recombinant N protein. In the fourth paper the cytoplamic tail of Gn but not Gc was shown to interact with genomic RNA. This interaction was probably rather unspecific since binding of Gn-CT with unrelated RNA and even single-stranded DNA were also observed. However, since the RNP consists of both N protein and N protein-encapsidated genomic RNA, it is possible that the viral genome plays a role in packaging of RNPs into virions. On the other hand, the nucleic acid-binding activity of Gn may have importance in the synthesis of viral RNA. Binding sites of Gn-CT with N protein or nucleic acids were also determined by peptide arrays, and they were largely found to overlap. The Gn-CT of hantaviruses contain a conserved zinc finger (ZF) domain with an unknown function. Some viruses need ZFs in entry or post-entry steps of the viral life cycle. Cysteine residues are required for the folding of ZFs by coordinating zinc-ions, and alkylation of these residues can affect virus infectivity. In the third paper, it was shown that purified hantavirions could be inactivated by treatment with cysteine-alkylating reagents, especially N-ethyl maleimide. However, the effect could not be pin-pointed to the ZF of Gn-CT since also other viral proteins reacted with maleimides, and it was, therefore, impossible to exclude the possibility that other cysteines besides those that were essential in the formation of ZF are required for hantavirus infectivity.

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Groundnut bud necrosis virus belongs to the genus Tospovirus, infects a wide range of crop plants and causes severe losses. To understand the role of the nucleocapsid protein in the viral life cycle, the protein was overexpressed in E. coli and purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. The purified N protein was well folded and was predominantly alpha-helical. Deletion analysis revealed that the C-terminal unfolded region of the N protein was involved in RNA binding. Furthermore, the N protein could be phosphorylated in vitro by Nicotiana benthamiana plant sap and by purified recombinant kinases such as protein kinase CK2 and calcium-dependent protein kinase. This is the first report of phoshphorylation of a nucleocapsid protein in the family Bunyaviridae. The possible implications of the present findings for the viral life cycle are discussed.

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The nonstructural protein NSs, encoded by the S RNA of groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) has earlier been shown to possess nucleic-acid-stimulated NTPase and 50 a phosphatase activity. ATP hydrolysis is an essential function of a true helicase. Therefore, NSs was tested for DNA helicase activity. The results demonstrated that GBNV NSs possesses bidirectional DNA helicase activity. An alanine mutation in the Walker A motif (K189A rNSs) decreased DNA helicase activity substantially, whereas a mutation in the Walker B motif resulted in a marginal decrease in this activity. The parallel loss of the helicase and ATPase activity in the K189A mutant confirms that NSs acts as a non-canonical DNA helicase. Furthermore, both the wild-type and K189A NSs could function as RNA silencing suppressors, demonstrating that the suppressor activity of NSs is independent of its helicase or ATPase activity. This is the first report of a true helicase from a negative-sense RNA virus.

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Bunyaviruses are considered to be emerging pathogens facilitated by the segmented nature of their genome that allows reassortment between different species to generate novel viruses with altered pathogenicity. Bunyaviruses are transmitted via a diverse range of arthropod vectors, as well as rodents, and have established a global disease range with massive importance in healthcare, animal welfare and economics. There are no vaccines or anti-viral therapies available to treat human bunyavirus infections and so development of new anti-viral strategies is urgently required. Bunyamwera virus (BUNV; genus Orthobunyavirus) is the model bunyavirus, sharing aspects of its molecular and cellular biology with all Bunyaviridae family members. Here, we show for the first time that BUNV activates and requires cellular potassium (K+) channels to infect cells. Time of addition assays using K+ channel modulating agents demonstrated that K+ channel function is critical to events shortly after virus entry but prior to viral RNA synthesis/replication. A similar K+ channel dependence was identified for other bunyaviruses namely Schmallenberg virus (Orthobunyavirus) as well as the more distantly related Hazara virus (Nairovirus). Using a rational pharmacological screening regimen, twin-pore domain K+ channels (K2P) were identified as the K+ channel family mediating BUNV K+ channel dependence. As several K2P channel modulators are currently in clinical use, our work suggests they may represent a new and safe drug class for the treatment of potentially lethal bunyavirus disease.