804 resultados para Blooms


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The roles of weather variability and sunspots in the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms, were investigated using cyanobacteria cell data collected from the Fred Haigh Dam, Queensland, Australia. Time series generalized linear model and classification and regression (CART) model were used in the analysis. Data on notified cell numbers of cyanobacteria and weather variables over the periods 2001 and 2005 were provided by the Australian Department of Natural Resources and Water, and Australian Bureau of Meteorology, respectively. The results indicate that monthly minimum temperature (relative risk [RR]: 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.25) and rainfall (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20) had a positive association, but relative humidity (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.91-0.98) and wind speed (RR:0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.98) were negatively associated with the cyanobacterial numbers, after adjustment for seasonality and auto-correlation. The CART model showed that the cyanobacteria numbers were best described by an interaction between minimum temperature, relative humidity, and sunspot numbers. When minimum temperature exceeded 18%C and relative humidity was under 66%, the number of cyanobacterial cells rose by 2.15-fold. We conclude that the weather variability and sunspot activity may affect cyanobacterial blooms in dams.

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In recent years, ocean scientists have started to employ many new forms of technology as integral pieces in oceanographic data collection for the study and prediction of complex and dynamic ocean phenomena. One area of technological advancement in ocean sampling if the use of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) as mobile sensor plat- forms. Currently, most AUV deployments execute a lawnmower- type pattern or repeated transects for surveys and sampling missions. An advantage of these missions is that the regularity of the trajectory design generally makes it easier to extract the exact path of the vehicle via post-processing. However, if the deployment region for the pattern is poorly selected, the AUV can entirely miss collecting data during an event of specific interest. Here, we consider an innovative technology toolchain to assist in determining the deployment location and executed paths for AUVs to maximize scientific information gain about dynamically evolving ocean phenomena. In particular, we provide an assessment of computed paths based on ocean model predictions designed to put AUVs in the right place at the right time to gather data related to the understanding of algal and phytoplankton blooms.

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Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) have become an important environmental concern along the western coast of the United States. Toxic and noxious blooms adversely impact the economies of coastal communities in the region, pose risks to human health, and cause mortality events that have resulted in the deaths of thousands of fish, marine mammals and seabirds. One goal of field-based research efforts on this topic is the development of predictive models of HABs that would enable rapid response, mitigation and ultimately prevention of these events. In turn, these objectives are predicated on understanding the environmental conditions that stimulate these transient phenomena. An embedded sensor network (Fig. 1), under development in the San Pedro Shelf region off the Southern California coast, is providing tools for acquiring chemical, physical and biological data at high temporal and spatial resolution to help document the emergence and persistence of HAB events, supporting the design and testing of predictive models, and providing contextual information for experimental studies designed to reveal the environmental conditions promoting HABs. The sensor platforms contained within this network include pier-based sensor arrays, ocean moorings, HF radar stations, along with mobile sensor nodes in the form of surface and subsurface autonomous vehicles. FreewaveTM radio modems facilitate network communication and form a minimally-intrusive, wireless communication infrastructure throughout the Southern California coastal region, allowing rapid and cost-effective data transfer. An emerging focus of this project is the incorporation of a predictive ocean model that assimilates near-real time, in situ data from deployed Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). The model then assimilates the data to increase the skill of both nowcasts and forecasts, thus providing insight into bloom initiation as well as the movement of blooms or other oceanic features of interest (e.g., thermoclines, fronts, river discharge, etc.). From these predictions, deployed mobile sensors can be tasked to track a designated feature. This focus has led to the creation of a technology chain in which algorithms are being implemented for the innovative trajectory design for AUVs. Such intelligent mission planning is required to maneuver a vehicle to precise depths and locations that are the sites of active blooms, or physical/chemical features that might be sources of bloom initiation or persistence. The embedded network yields high-resolution, temporal and spatial measurements of pertinent environmental parameters and resulting biology (see Fig. 1). Supplementing this with ocean current information and remotely sensed imagery and meteorological data, we obtain a comprehensive foundation for developing a fundamental understanding of HAB events. This then directs labor- intensive and costly sampling efforts and analyses. Additionally, we provide coastal municipalities, managers and state agencies with detailed information to aid their efforts in providing responsible environmental stewardship of their coastal waters.

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Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are truly global marine phenomena of increasing significance. Some HAB occurrences are different to observe because of their high spatial and temporal variability and their advection, once formed, by surface currents. A serious HAB occurred in the Bohai Sea during autumn 1998, causing the largest fisheries economic loss. The present study analyzes the formation, distribution, and advection of HAB using satellite SeaWiFS ocean color data and other oceanographic data. The results show that the bloom originated in the western coastal waters of the Bohai Sea in early September, and developed southeastward when sea surface temperature (SST) increased to 25-26 °C. The bloom with a high Chl-a concentration (6.5 mg m-3) in center portion covered an area of 60 × 65 km2. At the end of September, the bloom decayed when SST decreased to 22-23 °C. The HAB may have been initiated by a combination of the river discharge nutrients in the west coastal waters and the increase of SST; afterwards it may have been transported eastward by the local circulation that was enhanced by northwesterly winds in late September and early October.

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Foreword Background and objectives [pdf, 0.84 MB] Country reviews and status reports Section I. Western North Pacific Japan Yasuwo Fukuyo, Ichiro Imai, Masaaki Kodama and Kyoichi Tamai Red tides and harmful algal blooms in Japan [pdf, 0.7 MB] People's Republic of China Tian Yan, Ming-Jiang Zhou and Jing-Zhong Zou A national report of HABs in China [pdf, 0.24 MB] Republic of Korea Sam Geun Lee, Hak Gyoon Kim, Eon Seob Cho and Chang Kyu Lee Harmful algal blooms (red tides): Management and mitigation in Korea [pdf, 0.27 MB] Russia Tatiana Y. Orlova, Galina V. Konovalova, Inna V. Stonik, Tatiana V. Morozova and Olga G. Shevchenko Harmful algal blooms on the eastern coast of Russia [pdf, 1.4 MB] Section II. Eastern North Pacific Canada F.J.R. "Max" Taylor and Paul J. Harrison Harmful marine algal blooms in western Canada [pdf, 0.87 MB] United States of America Vera L. Trainer Harmful algal blooms on the U.S. west coast [pdf, 0.5 MB] Mexico Jose L. Ochoa, S. Lluch-Cota, B.O. Arredondo-Vega, E. Nuñes-Vázquez, A. Heredia-Tapia, J. Pérez-Linares and R. Alonso-Rodriguez Marine Biotoxins and harmful algal blooms in Mexico's Pacific littora [pdf, 0.2 MB] Summary and conclusions [pdf, 0.6 MB] Appendices A. Members of the Working Group [pdf, 0.1 MB] B. Original terms of reference (Vladivostok, 1999) [pdf, 0.08 MB] C. Annual reports of WG 15 [pdf, 0.15 MB] D. Workshop report on taxonomy and identification of HAB species and data management [pdf, 0.15 MB] (Document pdf contains 156 pages)

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Algal blooms, worsening marine ecosystems and causing great economic loss, have been paid much attention to for a long time. Such environmental factors as light penetration, water temperature, and nutrient concentration are crucial in blooms processes. Among them, only nutrients can be controlled. Therefore, the threshold of nutrients for algal blooms is of great concern. To begin with, a dynamic eutrophication model has been constructed to simulate the algal growth and phosphorus cycling. The model encapsulates the essential biological processes of algal growth and decay, and phosphorus regeneration due to algal decay. The nutrient limitation is based upon commonly used Monod's kinetics. The effects of temperature and phosphorus limitation are particularly addressed. Then, we have endeavored to elucidate the threshold of phosphorus at different temperature for algal blooms. Based on the numerical simulation, the isoquant contours of change rate of alga as shown in the figure are obtained, which obviously demonstrate the threshold of nutrient at an arbitrary reasonable temperature. The larger the change rate is, the more rapidly the alga grows. If the phosphorus concentration at a given temperature remains larger than the threshold the algal biomass may increase monotonically, leading to the algal blooming. With the rising of temperature, the threshold is apparently reduced, which may explain why likely red tide disasters occur in a fine summer day. So, high temperature and sufficient phosphorus supply are the major factors which result in algal growth and blowout of red tide.

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Blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) have had a profound and unparalled impact on the aquatic environment because of the phenomenon of bloom formation. In many countries, water management is threatened with extensive and persistent noxious blooms of blue-green algae in surface and near-surface mesotrophic and eutrophic waters. In view of this, ecological and physiological factors responsible for blue-green algal dominance are discussed. The implications of cyanobacterial blooms are highlighted and recommendations made to combat this menace

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Viruses, which are characterised by a relative simplicity of chemical composition, are involved with all the groups of the animal and plant world. The discovery of viruses of lower organisms has special interest. Along with the already known viruses lysing bacteria and actinomycetes, viruses have been discovered in recent years which lyse algae. During investigations of water from water-bloom patches and of mud taken from zones of massive accumulation of blue-green algae in the Dneprovsk reservoirs, the authors obtained viruses lysing algae. The revealing of viruses producing lysis of blue-green algae, which one could use in the control of water-blooms, has the greatest interest. With this aim, samples of water were collected from various zones of water-bloom patches in the Kremenchug, Dneprovsk and Kukhov reservoirs. For viruses lysing algae we propose the name 'algophages'. Along with the existence of viruses of algae of the phage type, one cannot deny the possibility of the existence of viruses of another type, multiplying in the cells of algae and causing their virus illnesses.

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This is the final report on the research project to develop predictive models to quantify algal blooms in relation to environmental variables. The project's objectives were to develop models simulating the impact of vertical structure and mass transfer upon the dynamics of planktonic algae, including cyanobacteria, in lakes and reservoirs, to assess the potential of sedimentary phosphorus to sustain algal growth following reduction in external loading and to expand and enhance formulations to predict behaviour of blue-green algal populations and to incorporate these into a model software package. As part of the project a strategy for the production of a user-friendly packaging for the modelling software PROTEC-2 adaptable to particular sites was developed.

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Like other rivers in the Paris area, the Oise is subject to important seasonal algal blooms. This eutrophication generates notable problems for the production of drinking-water from a treatment plant on the river at Méry. A mathematical model has been developed to simulate variation in water quality in a pre-treatment storage basin, and another model is currently being adapted to model the River Oise. Integration of the two models should provide a comprehensive tool for predicting variations of phytoplankton and water-quality parameters associated with algal blooms. This will be a decision-aid for optimizing control of the treatment process for providing potable water.

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This report is the product of a panel of experts in the science of blooms of unicellular marine algae which can cause mass mortalities in a variety of marine organisms and cause illness and even death in humans who consume contaminated seafood. These phenomena are collectively termed harmful algal blooms or HABs for short. As a counterpart to recent assessments of the priorities for scientific research to understand the causes and behavior of HABs, this assessment addressed the management options for reducing their incidence and extent (prevention), actions that can quell or contain blooms (control), and steps to reduce the losses of resources or economic values and minimize human health risks (mitigation). This assessment is limited to an appraisal of scientific understanding, but also reflects consideration of information and perspectives provided by regional experts, agency managers and user constituencies during three regional meetings. The panel convened these meetings during the latter half of 1996 to solicit information and opinions from scientific experts, agency managers and user constituencies in Texas, Washington, and Florida. The panel's assessment limited its attention to those HABs that result in neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, paralytic shellfish poisoning, brown tides, amnesic shellfish poisoning, and aquaculture fish kills. This covers most, but certainly not all, HAB problems in the U.S.

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Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a significant and potentially expanding problem around the world. Resource management and public health protection require sufficient information to reduce the impacts of HABs by response strategies and through warnings and advisories. To be effective, these programs can best be served by an integration of improved detection methods with both evolving monitoring systems and new communications capabilities. Data sets are typically collected from a variety of sources, these can be considered as several types: point data, such as water samples; transects, such as from shipboard continuous sampling; and synoptic, such as from satellite imagery. Generation of a field of the HAB distribution requires all of these sampling approaches. This means that the data sets need to be interpreted and analyzed with each other to create the field or distribution of the HAB. The HAB field is also a necessary input into models that forecast blooms. Several systems have developed strategies that demonstrate these approaches. These range from data sets collected at key sites, such as swimming beaches, to automated collection systems, to integration of interpreted satellite data. Improved data collection, particularly in speed and cost, will be one of the advances of the next few years. Methods to improve creation of the HAB field from the variety of data types will be necessary for routine nowcasting and forecasting of HABs.

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Algae are the most abundant photosynthetic organisms in marine ecosystems and are essential components of marine food webs. Harmful algal bloom or “HAB” species are a small subset of algal species that negatively impact humans or the environment. HABs can pose health hazards for humans or animals through the production of toxins or bioactive compounds. They also can cause deterioration of water quality through the buildup of high biomass, which degrades aesthetic, ecological, and recreational values. Humans and animals can be exposed to marine algal toxins through their food, the water in which they swim, or sea spray. Symptoms from toxin exposure range from neurological impairment to gastrointestinal upset to respiratory irritation, in some cases resulting in severe illness and even death. HABs can also result in lost revenue for coastal economies dependent on seafood harvest or tourism, disruption of subsistence activities, loss of community identity tied to coastal resource use, and disruption of social and cultural practices. Although economic impact assessments to date have been limited in scope, it has been estimated that the economic effects of marine HABs in U.S. communities amount to at least $82 million per year including lost income for fisheries, lost recreational opportunities, decreased business in tourism industries, public health costs of illness, and expenses for monitoring and management. As reviewed in the report, Harmful Algal Research and Response: A Human Dimensions Strategy1, the sociocultural impacts of HABs may be significant, but remain mostly undocumented.

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In 2004, Congress reauthorized the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Research and Control Act of 1998 with the Harmful Algal Bloom and Hypoxia Amendments Act (HABHRCA 2004). The 2004 legislation required the generation of five reports, including this "Scientific Assessment of Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms." HABHRCA 2004 stipulates that this report 1) examine the causes, consequences, and economic costs of freshwater HABs, 2) establish priorities and guidelines for a research program on freshwater HABs, and 3) make recommendations to improve coordination among Federal agencies with respect to research on HABs in freshwater environments. This report is divided into five chapters: Chapter 1 provides the legislative background and process for developing the report, Chapter 2 describes the problem of freshwater and inland HABs in the United States, Chapter 3 outlines the current Federal efforts in freshwater and inland HAB research and response, Chapter 4 discusses the future research priorities, and Chapter 5 delineates opportunities for coordination to advance research efforts. The document is based, in large part, on the proceedings (Hudnell 2008) of the International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms, a meeting convened by EPA and sponsored by a variety of Federal agencies, to describe current scientific knowledge and identify priorities for future research on CyanoHABs. This report offers a plan for coordinating the important research that is currently ongoing in the United States and for guiding future research directions for Federal programs as well as for state, local, private, and academic institutions in order to maximize advancements. To this end, the Interagency Working Group on Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia, and Human Health (IWG-4H) identifies seven priorities, all of equal weight, for freshwater HAB research and response. These priorities represent research areas where there is the greatest potential for progress in freshwater HAB research. This report does not attempt to assess the relative importance of freshwater HAB research compared to other research areas or other priorities for Federal or state investment.

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One of the most important marine ecological phenomena is red tide which is created by increasing of phytoplankton population, influenced by different factors such as climate condition changes, utrification hydrological factors and can leave sever and undesired ecological and economical effects behind itself in the case of durability. Coast line of Hormozgan is about 900km from east to west, within the range of geographical coordinates of 56 16 23.8, 26 58 8.8 to 54 34 5.33 and 26 34 32 eastern longitude and northern latitude, seven sampling stations were considered and sampled for a period of one year from October 2008 to October 2009. after the analysis of Satellite images, monthly, during the best time. In several stages, samplings were performed. In each station, three samples were collected for identification and determination of Bloom- creating species abundance. Cochlodinium polykrikoides was the species responsible for the discoloration which occurred at October 2008 in Hormozgan marine water. Environmental parameters such as sea surface temperature, pH, salinity, Dissolved Oxygen concentration, Total Dissolved Solids (T.D.S.), conductivity, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate and also chlorophyll a were measured and calculated. Kruscal Wallis test was used to compare the densities between different months, seasons and the studied stations. Mann-whitney test from Nonparametric Tests was used for couple comparison. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between physical and chemical data set and the abundance of Cochlodinium polykrikoides. Multivariate Regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) also were used to obtain the models and equations of red tide occurrence relationship, environmental parameters and nutrient data. The highest density was 26 million cells per liter in Qeshm station. A meaningful difference was observed between sampling months and seasons but there was no between sampling stations which indicates that in favorable conditions, the occurrence of this phenomenon by the studied species is probable. Regarding to β coefficients of nitrate, temperature, phosphate, Total Dissolvable Solutions (T.D.S) and pH these parameters are effective on the abundance of this species and red tide occurrence. Increase in these factors can represent the effects and outcomes of human activities and increase in marine pollution.