1000 resultados para Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


Relevância:

100.00% 100.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Biomaterials play a fundamental role in disease management and the improvement of health care. In recent years, there has been a significant growth in the diversity, function, and number of biomaterials used worldwide. Yet, attachment of pathogenic microorganisms onto biomaterial surfaces remains a significant challenge that substantially undermines their clinical applicability, limiting the advancement of these systems. The emergence and escalating pervasiveness of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains makes the management of biomaterial-associated nosocomial infections increasingly difficult. The conventional post-operative treatment of implant-caused infections using systemic antibiotics is often marginally effective, further accelerating the extent of antimicrobial resistance. Methods by which the initial stages of bacterial attachment and biofilm formation can be restricted or prevented are therefore sought. The surface modification of biomaterials has the potential to alleviate pathogenic biofouling, therefore preventing the need for conventional antibiotics to be applied.

Relevância:

100.00% 100.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Carotenoids prevent different degenerative diseases and improve human health. Microalgae are commercially exploited for carotenoids, including astaxanthin and β-carotene. Two commercially important microalgae, Dunaliella salina and Tetraselmis suecica, were treated with plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ), or by UV-C radiation (T. suecica only) and a combination thereof. Significant increases in total carotenoids were found for D. salina and T. suecica after treatment with MJ (10 μmol/L) and SA (70–250 μmol/L), respectively. T. suecica also had significant increases in total carotenoids following UV-C radiation compared to control cultures. Among the carotenoids, lutein was the highest induced carotenoid. A combination of these two treatments also showed a significant increase in total carotenoids and lutein for T. suecica, when compared to controls. Plant hormones and UV-C radiation may be useful tools for increasing carotenoid accumulation in green microalgae although the responses are species- and dose-specific and should be trialed in medium to large scale to explore commercial production.

Relevância:

100.00% 100.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Thiobacillus ferrooxidans oxidized the sulphide minerals e.g., pyrite, pyrrhotite and copper concentrate under anaerobic conditions in the presence of ferric ion as sole electron acceptor. Copper and iron were solubilized from sulphide ores by the sulphur (sulphide)-dependent ferric-ion oxidoreductase activity. Treatment of resting cells of T. ferrooxidans with 0.5% phenol for 30 min completely destroyed the iron- and copper-solubilizing activity. The above treatment destroyed the sulphur(sulphide)-dependent ferric-ion-reducing activity completely but did not affect the iron-oxidizing activity. The results suggest that sulphur(sulphide)-dependent ferric-ion-reducing activity actively participates in the oxidation of sulphide minerals under anaerobic conditions. The activity of sulphur(sulphide)-dependent ferric ion reduction in the solubilization of iron and copper from the sulphide ores were also observed under aerobic conditions in presence of sodium azide (0.1 μmol), which completely inhibits the iron-oxidizing activity.

Relevância:

100.00% 100.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Incubation of acetates of geraniol, citronellol and linalool with Aspergillus niger resulted in their hydrolysis to corresponding alcohols which were further hydroxylated to their respective 8-hydroxy derivatives. In the case of linalyl acetate, besides linalool and 8-hydroxylinalool, small amounts of geraniol and agr-terpineol were also formed. Microsomes (105 000xg sediment) prepared from induced cells of A. niger were found to convert (1-3H)citronellol to 8-hydroxy citronellol in the presence of NADPH and O2. The pH optimum for the hydroxylase was found to be 7.6.

Relevância:

100.00% 100.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Mucor piriformis was used to study the mode of transformation of 16-dehydroprogesterone (I, pregna-4, 16-diene-3, 20-dione) and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (II, 17 alpha-hydroxypregn-4-ene-3, 20-dione). Biotransformation products formed from I were 14 alpha-hydroxypregna-4, 16-diene-3, 20-dione (Ia), 7 alpha, 14 alpha-dihydroxypregna-4 16-diene-3, 20-dione (Ib), 3 beta, 7 alpha, 14 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregn-16-en-20-one (Ic), and 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 14 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregn-16-en-20-one (Id). Metabolites Ic and Id appear to be hitherto unknown. Timecourse studies suggested that the transformation is initiated by hydroxylation at the 14 alpha-position (Ia) followed by hydroxylation at the 7 alpha-position (Ib). Microsomes (105,000 g sediment) prepared from 16-dehydroprogesterone-induced cells hydroxylate I to its 14 alpha-hydroxy derivative (Ia) in the presence of NADPH. Incubation of Ia with the organism resulted in the formation of Ib, Ic and Id. Biotransformation products formed from compound II were 17 alpha, 20 alpha-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (IIa), 7 alpha, 17 alpha-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3, 20-dione (IIb), 6 beta, 17 alpha, 20 alpha-trihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (IIc) and 11 alpha, 17 alpha, 20 alpha-trihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one (IId). Time-course studies indicated that IIa is the initial product formed, which is further hydroxylated either at the 6 beta or 11 alpha position. Incubation of IIa with the organism resulted in the formation of IIc and IId. Reduction of the 4-en-3-one system and 20-keto group has not been observed before in organisms of the order Mucorales. In addition, M. piriformis has been shown to carry out hydroxylation at the C-6, C-7, C-11 and C-14 positions in the steroid molecules tested.

Relevância:

100.00% 100.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

The mode of transformation of dehydroepiandrosterone (I, 3 beta-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one) and pregnenolone (II, 3 beta-hydroxypregn-5-en-20-one) was studied using Mucor piriformis. Biotransformation products formed from I were 3 beta,17 beta-dihydroxyandrost-5-ene (Ia), 3 beta-hydroxyandrost-5-ene-7,17-dione (Ib), 3 beta,17 beta-dihydroxyandrost-5-en-7-one (Ic), 3 beta,7 alpha-dihydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one (Id) and 3 beta,7 alpha,17 beta-trihydroxyandrost-5-ene (Ie). Biotransformation products formed from compound II were 3 beta,7 alpha-dihydroxypregn-5-en-20-one (IIa) and 3 beta,7 alpha,11 alpha-trihydroxypregn-5-en-20-one (IIb). The organism did not carry out isomerization of the 5-en-3 beta-ol to a 4-en-3-one system in the steroid molecules tested. In addition, it failed to carry out 14 alpha-hydroxylation possibly because of the lack of a 4-en-3-one system in I and II, and stereospecific hydroxylation at the C-7 position in I and II.

Relevância:

100.00% 100.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Small quantity of energetic material coated on the inner wall of a polymer tube is proposed as a new method to generate micro-shock waves in the laboratory. These micro-shock waves have been harnessed to develop a novel method of delivering dry particle and liquid jet into the target. We have generated micro-shock waves with the help of reactive explosive compound high melting explosive (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) and traces of aluminium] coated polymer tube, utilising 9 J of energy. The detonation process is initiated electrically from one end of the tube, while the micro-shock wave followed by the products of detonation escape from the open end of the polymer tube. The energy available at the open end of the polymer tube is used to accelerate tungsten micro-particles coated on the other side of the diaphragm or force a liquid jet out of a small cavity filled with the liquid. The micro-particles deposited on a thin metal diaphragm (typically 100-mu m thick) were accelerated to high velocity using micro-shock waves to penetrate the target. Tungsten particles of 0.7 mu m diameter have been successfully delivered into agarose gel targets of various strengths (0.6-1.0 %). The device has been tested by delivering micro-particles into potato tuber and Arachis hypogaea Linnaeus (ground nut) stem tissue. Along similar lines, liquid jets of diameter 200-250 mu m (methylene blue, water and oils) have been successfully delivered into agarose gel targets of various strengths. Successful vaccination against murine salmonellosis was demonstrated as a biological application of this device. The penetration depths achieved in the experimental targets are very encouraging to develop a future device for biological and biomedical applications.

Relevância:

100.00% 100.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

In plants, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are key intermediates in calcium-mediated signaling that couple changes in Ca2+ levels to a specific response. In the present study, we report the high-level soluble expression of calcium-dependent protein kinase1 from Cicer arietinum (CaCDPK1) in Escherichia coli. The expression of soluble CaCDPK1 was temperature dependent with a yield of 3-4 mg/l of bacterial culture. CaCDPK1 expressed as histidine-tag fusion protein was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography till homogeneity. The recombinant CaCDPK1 protein exhibited both calcium-dependent autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation activities with a V (max) and K (m) value of 13.2 nmol/min/mg and 34.3 mu M, respectively, for histone III-S as substrate. Maximum autophosphorylation was seen only in the presence of calcium. Optimum temperature for autophosphorylation was found to be 37 A degrees C. The recombinant protein showed optimum pH range of 6-9. The role of autophosphorylation in substrate phosphorylation was investigated using histone III-S as exogenous substrate. Our results show that autophosphorylation happens before substrate phosphorylation and it happens via intra-molecular mechanism as the activity linearly depends on enzyme concentrations. Autophosphorylation enhances the kinase activity and reduces the lag phase of activation, and CaCDPK1 can utilize both ATP and GTP as phosphodonor but ATP is preferred than GTP.

Relevância:

100.00% 100.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

The extremely thermophilic anaerobic archaeon strain, HJ21, was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, could produce hyperthermophilic alpha-amylase, and later was identified as Thermococcus from morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics and the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The extracellular thermostable alpha-amylase produced by strain HJ21 exhibited maximal activity at pH 5.0. The enzyme was stable in a broad pH range from pH 5.0 to 9.0. The optimal temperature of alpha-amylase was observed at 95 degrees C. The half-life of the enzyme was 5 h at 90 degrees C. Over 40% and 30% of the enzyme activity remained after incubation at 100 degrees C for 2 and 3 h, respectively. The enzyme did not require Ca2+ for thermostability. This alpha-amylase gene was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence displayed an open reading frame of 1,374 bp, which encodes a protein of 457 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that four homologous regions common in amylases were conserved in the HJ21 alpha-amylase. The molecular weight of the mature enzyme was calculated to be 51.4 kDa, which correlated well with the size of the purified enzyme as shown by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.