998 resultados para Acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis


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Introduction Critical care patients frequently receive blood transfusions. Some reports show an association between aged or stored blood and increased morbidity and mortality, including the development of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). However, the existence of conflicting data endorses the need for research to either reject this association, or to confirm it and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Twenty-eight sheep were randomised into two groups, receiving saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sheep were further randomised to also receive transfusion of pooled and heat-inactivated supernatant from fresh (Day 1) or stored (Day 42) non-leucoreduced human packed red blood cells (PRBC) or an infusion of saline. TRALI was defined by hypoxaemia during or within two hours of transfusion and histological evidence of pulmonary oedema. Regression modelling compared physiology between groups, and to a previous study, using stored platelet concentrates (PLT). Samples of the transfused blood products also underwent cytokine array and biochemical analyses, and their neutrophil priming ability was measured in vitro. Results TRALI did not develop in sheep that first received saline-infusion. In contrast, 80% of sheep that first received LPS-infusion developed TRALI following transfusion with "stored PRBC." The decreased mean arterial pressure and cardiac output as well as increased central venous pressure and body temperature were more severe for TRALI induced by "stored PRBC" than by "stored PLT." Storage-related accumulation of several factors was demonstrated in both "stored PRBC" and "stored PLT", and was associated with increased in vitro neutrophil priming. Concentrations of several factors were higher in the "stored PRBC" than in the "stored PLT," however, there was no difference to neutrophil priming in vitro. Conclusions In this in vivo ovine model, both recipient and blood product factors contributed to the development of TRALI. Sick (LPS infused) sheep rather than healthy (saline infused) sheep predominantly developed TRALI when transfused with supernatant from stored but not fresh PRBC. "Stored PRBC" induced a more severe injury than "stored PLT" and had a different storage lesion profile, suggesting that these outcomes may be associated with storage lesion factors unique to each blood product type. Therefore, the transfusion of fresh rather than stored PRBC may minimise the risk of TRALI.

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The 'open window' theory is characterised by short term suppression of the immune system following an acute bout of endurance exercise. This window of opportunity may allow for an increase in susceptibility to upper respiratory illness (URI). Many studies have indicated a decrease in immune function in response to exercise. However, many studies do not indicate changes in immune function past 2 hours after the completion of exercise, consequently failing to determine whether these immune cells numbers, or importantly their function, return to resting levels before the start of another bout of exercise. Ten male 'A' grade cyclists (age 24.2 +/- 5.3 years; body mass 73.8 +/- 6.5 kg; VO(2peak) 65.9 +/- 7.1 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) exercised for two hours at 90% of their second ventilatory threshold. Blood samples were collected pre-, immediately post-, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours, and 24 hours post-exercise. Immune variables examined included total leukocyte counts, neutrophil function (oxidative burst and phagocytic function), lymphocyte subset counts (CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD16(+)/56(+)), natural killer cell activity (NKCA), and NK phenotypes (CD56(dim)CD16(+), and CD56(bright)CD16(-)). There was a significant increase in total lymphocyte numbers from pre-, to immediately post-exercise (p<0.01), followed by a significant decrease at 2 hours post-exercise (p<0.001). CD4(+) T-cell counts significantly increased from pre-exercise, to 4 hours post- (p<0.05), and 6 hours post-exercise (p<0.01). However, NK (CD16(+)/56(+)) cell numbers decreased significantly from pre-exercise to 4 h post-exercise (p<0.05), to 6 h post-exercise (p<0.05), and to 8 h post-exercise (p<0.01). In contrast, CD56(bright)CD16- NK cell counts significantly increased from pre-exercise to immediately post-exercise (p<0.01). Neutrophil oxidative burst activity did not significantly change in response to exercise, while neutrophil cell counts significantly increased from pre-exercise, to immediately post-exercise (p<0.05), and 2 hours post-exercise (p<0.01), and remained significantly above pre-exercise levels to 8 hours post-exercise (p<0.01). Neutrophil phagocytic function significantly decreased from 2 hours post-exercise, to 6 hours post- (p<0.05), and 24 hours post-exercise (p<0.05). Finally, eosinophil cell counts significantly increased from 2 hours post to 6 hours post- (p<0.05), and 8 hours post-exercise (p<0.05). This is the first study to show changes in immunological variables up to 8 hours post-exercise, including significant NK cell suppression, NK cell phenotype changes, a significant increase in total lymphocyte counts, and a significant increase in eosinophil cell counts all at 8 hours post-exercise. Suppression of total lymphocyte counts, NK cell counts and neutrophil phagocytic function following exercise may be important in the increased rate of URI in response to regular intense endurance training.

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The transition process from student to Registered Nurse has been recognised as an important yet challenging time for newly graduated nurses. Knowledge about this experience from the nurse’s perspective, particularly in a rural setting, is limited. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study of the experiences of newly graduated nurses working in a rural acute care facility in New South Wales. The study examined, from the perspective of the new nurse, the orientation and support which can help to facilitate the transition from student to registered nurse. Four themes emerged which were being supported, being challenged, reflections on being a new graduate, and reflections on a rural new graduate program. These findings contribute to what is know about the transition of new graduates in a rural facility and have implications for program improvements, specifically within the rural acute care environment. The findings are also relevant to students considering rural employment on graduation and for the recruitment and retention of New Graduate Registered Nurses in rural areas.

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Purpose: To investigate the effects of an acute multinutrient supplement on game-based running performance, peak power output, anaerobic by-products, hormonal profiles, markers of muscle damage, and perceived muscular soreness before, immediately after, and 24 h following competitive rugby union games. Methods: Twelve male rugby union players ingested either a comprehensive multinutrient supplement (SUPP), [RE-ACTIVATE:01], or a placebo (PL) for 5 d. Participants then performed a competitive rugby union game (with global positioning system tracking), with associated blood draws and vertical jump assessments pre, immediately post and 24 h following competition. Results: SUPP ingestion resulted in moderate to large effects for augmented 1st half very high intensity running (VHIR) mean speed (5.9 ± 0.4 vs 4.8 ± 2.3 m·min–1; d= 0.93). Further, moderate increases in 2nd half VHIR distance (137 ± 119 vs 83 ± 89 m; d= 0.73) and VHIR mean speed (5.9 ± 0.6 v 5.3 ± 1.7 m·min–1; d= 0.56) in SUPP condition were also apparent. Postgame aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 44.1 ± 11.8 vs 37.0 ± 3.2 UL; d= 1.16) and creatine kinase (CK; 882 ± 472 vs. 645 ± 123 UL; d= 0.97) measures demonstrated increased values in the SUPP condition, while AST and CK values correlated with 2nd half VHIR distance (r= –0.71 and r= –0.76 respectively). Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) was observed postgame in both conditions; however, it was significantly blunted with SUPP (P= .05). Conclusions: These findings suggest SUPP may assist in the maintenance of VHIR during rugby union games, possibly via the buffering qualities of SUPP ingredients. However, correlations between increased work completed at very high intensities and muscular degradation in SUPP conditions, may mask any anticatabolic properties of the supplement.

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Aim: To determine the effects of an acute multi-nutrient supplement on physiological, performance and recovery responses to intermittent-sprint running and muscular damage during rugby union matches. Methods: Using a randomised, double-blind, cross-over design, twelve male rugby union players ingested either 75 g of a comprehensive multi-nutrient supplement (SUPP), [Musashi] or 1 g of a taste and carbohydrate matched placebo (PL) for 5 days pre-competition. Competitive rugby union game running performance was then measured using 1 Hz GPS data (SPI10, SPI elite, GPSports), in addition to associated blood draws, vertical jump assessments and ratings of perceived muscular soreness (MS) pre, immediately post and 24 h post-competition. Baseline (BL) GPS data was collected during six competition rounds preceding data collection. Results: No significant differences were observed between supplement conditions for all game running, vertical jump, and ratings of perceived muscular soreness. However, effect size analysis indicated SUPP ingestion increased 1st half very high intensity running (VHIR) mean speed (d = 0.93) and 2nd half relative distance (m/min) (d = 0.97). Further, moderate increases in 2nd half VHIR distance (d = 0.73), VHIR m/min (d = 0.70) and VHIR mean speed (d = 0.56) in SUPP condition were also apparent. Moreover, SUPP demonstrated significant increases in 2nd half dist m/min, total game dist m/min and total game HIR m/min compared with BL data (P < 0.05). Further, large ES increases in VHIR time (d = 0.88) and moderate increases in 2nd half HIR m/min (d = 0.65) and 2nd half VHIR m/min (d = 0.74) were observed between SUPP and BL. Post-game aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (d = 1.16) and creatine kinase (CK) (d = 0.97) measures demonstrated increased ES values with SUPP, while AST and CK values correlated with 2nd half VHIR distance (r = −0.71 and r = −0.76 respectively). Elevated c-reactive protein (CRP) was observed post-game in both conditions, however was significantly blunted with SUPP (P = 0.05). Additionally, pre-game (d = 0.98) and post-game (d = 0.96) increases in cortisol (CORT) were apparent with SUPP. No differences were apparent between conditions for pH, lactate, glucose, HCO3, vertical jump assessments and MS (P > 0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest SUPP may assist in the maintenance of VHIR speeds and distances covered during rugby union games, possibly via the buffering qualities of SUPP ingredients (i.e. caffeine, creatine, bicarbonate). While the mechanisms for these findings are unclear, the similar pH between conditions despite additional VHIR during SUPP may support this conclusion. Finally, correlations between increased work completed at very high intensities and muscular degradation in SUPP conditions, may mask any anti-catabolic properties of supplementation.

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Background: Nurses routinely use pulse oximetry (SpO2) monitoring equipment in acute care. Interpretation of the reading involves physical assessment and awareness of parameters including temperature, haemoglobin, and peripheral perfusion. However, there is little information on whether these clinical signs are routinely measured or used in pulse oximetry interpretation by nurses. Aim: The aim of this study was to review current practice of SpO2 measurement and the associated documentation of the physiological data that is required for accurate interpretation of the readings. The study reviewed the documentation practices relevant to SpO2 in five medical wards of a tertiary level metropolitan hospital. Method: A prospective casenote audit was conducted on random days over a three-month period. The audit tool had been validated in a previous study. Results: One hundred and seventy seven episodes of oxygen saturation monitoring were reviewed. Our study revealed a lack of parameters to validate the SpO2 readings. Only 10% of the casenotes reviewed had sufficient physiological data to meaningfully interpret the SpO2 reading and only 38% had an arterial blood gas as a comparator. Nursing notes rarely documented clinical interpretation of the results. Conclusion: The audits suggest that medical and nursing staff are not interpreting the pulse oximetry results in context and that the majority of the results were normal with no clinical indication for performing this observation. This reduces the usefulness of such readings and questions the appropriateness of performing “routine” SpO2 in this context.

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This study investigated the effect of using Norton Scale assessment data in the nursing care of patients at risk of developing pressure ulcers. The results indicated that incorporating the Norton Scale in care planning resulted in benefits to patients through earlier and more effective nursing interventions.

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Background & aims: One aim of the Australasian Nutrition Care Day Survey was to determine the nutritional status and dietary intake of acute care hospital patients. Methods: Dietitians from 56 hospitals in Australia and New Zealand completed a 24-h survey of nutritional status and dietary intake of adult hospitalised patients. Nutritional risk was evaluated using the Malnutrition Screening Tool. Participants ‘at risk’ underwent nutritional assessment using Subjective Global Assessment. Based on the International Classification of Diseases (Australian modification), participants were also deemed malnourished if their body mass index was <18.5 kg/m2. Dietitians recorded participants’ dietary intake at each main meal and snacks as 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of that offered. Results: 3122 patients (mean age: 64.6 ± 18 years) participated in the study. Forty-one percent of the participants were “at risk” of malnutrition. Overall malnutrition prevalence was 32%. Fifty-five percent of malnourished participants and 35% of well-nourished participants consumed ≤50% of the food during the 24-h audit. “Not hungry” was the most common reason for not consuming everything offered during the audit. Conclusion: Malnutrition and sub-optimal food intake is prevalent in acute care patients across hospitals in Australia and New Zealand and warrants appropriate interventions.

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One aim of the Australasian Nutrition Care Day Survey was to explore nutrition care practices in acute care hospital wards across Australia and New Zealand. Managers of Dietetic departments completed a questionnaire regarding ward nutrition care practices. Overall, 370 wards from 56 hospitals participated. The median ward size was 28 beds (range: 8–60 beds). Although there was a wide variation in full-time equivalent availability of dietitians (median: 0.3; range: 0–1.4), their involvement in providing nutrition care across ward specialities was signifi cantly higher than other staff members (χ2, p < 0.01). Feeding assistance, available in 89% of the wards, was provided mainly by nursing staff and family members (χ2, p < 0.01). Protected meal times were implemented in 5% (n = 18) of the wards. Fifty-three percent of the wards (n = 192) weighed patients on request and 40% (n = 148) on admission. Routine malnutrition screening was conducted in 63% (n = 232) of the wards and 79% (n = 184) of these wards used the Malnutrition Screening Tool, 16% (n = 37) the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and 5% (n = 11) other tools. Nutrition rescreening was routinely conducted in 20% of the wards. Among wards that implemented nutrition screening, 41% (n = 100) routinely referred patients “at risk” of malnutrition to dietitians as part of their standard protocol for malnutrition management. Results of this study provide new knowledge regarding current nutrition care practice, highlight gaps in existing practice, and can be used to inform improved nutrition care in acute care wards across Australia and New Zealand.

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Rationale: The Australasian Nutrition Care Day Survey (ANCDS) evaluated if malnutrition and decreased food intake are independent risk factors for negative outcomes in hospitalised patients. Methods: A multicentre (56 hospitals) cross-sectional survey was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 evaluated nutritional status (defined by Subjective Global Assessment) and 24-hour food intake recorded as 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% intake. Phase 2 data, which included length of stay (LOS), readmissions and mortality, were collected 90 days post-Phase 1. Logistic regression was used to control for confounders: age, gender, disease type and severity (using Patient Clinical Complexity Level scores). Results: Of 3122 participants (53% males, mean age: 65±18 years) 32% were malnourished and 23% consumed�25% of the offered food. Median LOS for malnourished (MN) patients was higher than well-nourished (WN) patients (15 vs. 10 days, p<0.0001). Median LOS for patients consuming �25% of the food was higher than those consuming �50% (13 vs. 11 days, p<0.0001). MN patients had higher readmission rates (36% vs. 30%, p = 0.001). The odds ratios of 90-day in-hospital mortality were 1.8 times greater for MN patients (CI: 1.03 3.22, p = 0.04) and 2.7 times greater for those consuming �25% of the offered food (CI: 1.54 4.68, p = 0.001). Conclusion: The ANCDS demonstrates that malnutrition and/or decreased food intake are associated with longer LOS and readmissions. The survey also establishes that malnutrition and decreased food intake are independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality in acute care patients; and highlights the need for appropriate nutritional screening and support during hospitalisation. Disclosure of Interest: None Declared.