998 resultados para Acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis


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Aim  To explore and discuss from recent literature the common factors contributing to nurse job satisfaction in the acute hospital setting. Background  Nursing dissatisfaction is linked to high rates of nurses leaving the profession, poor morale, poor patient outcomes and increased financial expenditure. Understanding factors that contribute to job satisfaction could increase nurse retention. Evaluation  A literature search from January 2004 to March 2009 was conducted using the keywords nursing, (dis)satisfaction, job (dis)satisfaction to identify factors contributing to satisfaction for nurses working in acute hospital settings. Key issues  This review identified 44 factors in three clusters (intra-, inter- and extra-personal). Job satisfaction for nurses in acute hospitals can be influenced by a combination of any or all of these factors. Important factors included coping strategies, autonomy, co-worker interaction, direct patient care, organizational policies, resource adequacy and educational opportunities. Conclusions  Research suggests that job satisfaction is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon. Collaboration between individual nurses, their managers and others is crucial to increase nursing satisfaction with their job. Implications for nursing management  Recognition and regular reviewing by nurse managers of factors that contribute to job satisfaction for nurses working in acute care areas is pivotal to the retention of valued staff.

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Research into complaints handling in the health care system has predominately focused on examining the processes that underpin the organisational systems. An understanding of the cognitive decisions made by patients that influence whether they are satisfied or dissatisfied with the care they are receiving has had limited attention thus far. This study explored the lived experiences of Queensland acute care patients who complained about some aspect of their inpatient stay. A purposive sample of sixteen participants was recruited and interviewed about their experience of making a complaint. The qualitative data gathered through the interview process was subjected to an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) approach, guided by the philosophical influences of Heidegger (1889-1976). As part of the interpretive endeavour of this study, Lazarus’ cognitive emotive model with situational challenge was drawn on to provide a contextual understanding of the emotions experienced by the study participants. Analysis of the research data, aided by Leximancer™ software, revealed a series of relational themes that supported the interpretative data analysis process undertaken. The superordinate thematic statements that emerged from the narratives via the hermeneutic process were ineffective communication, standards of care were not consistent, being treated with disrespect, information on how to complain was not clear, and perceptions of negligence. This study’s goal was to provide health services with information about complaints handling that can help them develop service improvements. The study patients articulated the need for health care system reform; they want to be listened to, to be acknowledged, to be believed, for people to take ownership if they had made a mistake, for mistakes not to occur again, and to receive an apology. For these initiatives to be fully realised, the paradigm shift must go beyond regurgitating complaints data metrics in percentages per patient contact, towards a concerted effort to evaluate what the qualitative complaints data is really saying. An opportunity to identify a more positive and proactive approach in encouraging our patients to complain when they are dissatisfied has the potential to influence improvements.

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Eccentric exercise is the conservative treatment of choice for mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy. While there is a growing body of evidence supporting the medium to long term efficacy of eccentric exercise in Achilles tendinopathy treatment, very few studies have investigated the short term response of the tendon to eccentric exercise. Moreover, the mechanisms through which tendinopathy symptom resolution occurs remain to be established. The primary purpose of this thesis was to investigate the acute adaptations of the Achilles tendon to, and the biomechanical characteristics of, the eccentric exercise protocol used for Achilles tendinopathy rehabilitation and a concentric equivalent. The research was conducted with an orientation towards exploring potential mechanisms through which eccentric exercise may bring about a resolution of tendinopathy symptoms. Specifically, the morphology of tendinopathic and normal Achilles tendons was monitored using high resolution sonography prior to and following eccentric and concentric exercise, to facilitate comparison between the treatment of choice and a similar alternative. To date, the only proposed mechanism through which eccentric exercise is thought to result in symptom resolution is the increased variability in motor output force observed during eccentric exercise. This thesis expanded upon prior work by investigating the variability in motor output force recorded during eccentric and concentric exercises, when performed at two different knee joint angles, by limbs with and without symptomatic tendinopathy. The methodological phase of the research focused on establishing the reliability of measures of tendon thickness, tendon echogenicity, electromyography (EMG) of the Triceps Surae and the standard deviation (SD) and power spectral density (PSD) of the vertical ground reaction force (VGRF). These analyses facilitated comparison between the error in the measurements and experimental differences identified as statistically significant, so that the importance and meaning of the experimental differences could be established. One potential limitation of monitoring the morphological response of the Achilles tendon to exercise loading is that the Achilles tendon is continually exposed to additional loading as participants complete the walking required to carry out their necessary daily tasks. The specific purpose of the last experiment in the methodological phase was to evaluate the effect of incidental walking activity on Achilles tendon morphology. The results of this study indicated that walking activity could decrease Achilles tendon thickness (negative diametral strain) and that the decrease in thickness was dependent on both the amount of walking completed and the proximity of walking activity to the sonographic examination. Thus, incidental walking activity was identified as a potentially confounding factor for future experiments which endeavoured to monitor changes in tendon thickness with exercise loading. In the experimental phase of this thesis the thickness of Achilles tendons was monitored prior to and following isolated eccentric and concentric exercise. The initial pilot study demonstrated that eccentric exercise resulted in a greater acute decrease in Achilles tendon thickness (greater diametral strain) compared to an equivalent concentric exercise, in participants with no history of Achilles tendon pain. This experiment was then expanded to incorporate participants with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. The major finding of this experiment was that the acute decrease in Achilles tendon thickness observed following eccentric exercise was modified by the presence of tendinopathy, with a smaller decrease (less diametral strain) noted for tendinopathic compared to healthy control tendon. Based on in vitro evidence a decrease in tendon thickness is believed to reflect extrusion of fluid from the tendon with loading. This process would appear to be limited by the presence of pathology and is hypothesised to be a result of the changes in tendon structure associated with tendinopathy. Load induced fluid movement may be important to the maintenance of tendon homeostasis and structure as it has the potential to enhance molecular movement and stimulate tendon remodelling. On this basis eccentric exercise may be more beneficial to the tendon than concentric exercise. Finally, EMG and motor output force variability (SD and PSD of VGRF) were investigated while participants with and without tendinopathy performed the eccentric and concentric exercises. Although between condition differences were identified as statistically significant for a number of force variability parameters, the differences were not greater than the limits of agreement for repeated measures. Consequently the meaning and importance of these findings were questioned. Interestingly, the EMG amplitude of all three Triceps Surae muscles did not vary with knee joint angle during the performance of eccentric exercise. This raises questions pertaining to the functional importance of performing the eccentric exercise protocol at each of the two knee joint angles as it is currently prescribed. EMG amplitude was significantly greater during concentric compared to eccentric muscle actions. Differences in the muscle activation patterns may result in different stress distributions within the tendon and be related to the different diametral strain responses observed for eccentric and concentric muscle actions.

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OBJECTIVES: To identify the prevalence of geriatric syndromes in the premorbid for all syndromes except falls (preadmission), admission, and discharge assessment periods and the incidence of new and significant worsening of existing syndromes at admission and discharge. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Three acute care hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred seventy-seven general medical patients aged 70 and older admitted to the hospital. MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence of syndromes in the premorbid (or preadmission for falls), admission, and discharge periods; incidence of new syndromes at admission and discharge; and significant worsening of existing syndromes at admission and discharge. RESULTS: The most frequently reported premorbid syndromes were bladder incontinence (44%), impairment in any activity of daily living (ADL) (42%). A high proportion (42%) experienced at least one fall in the 90 days before admission. Two-thirds of the participants experienced between one and five syndromes (cognitive impairment, dependence in any ADL item, bladder and bowel incontinence, pressure ulcer) before, at admission, and at discharge. A majority experienced one or two syndromes during the premorbid (49.4%), admission (57.0%), or discharge (49.0%) assessment period.The syndromes with a higher incidence of significant worsening at discharge (out of the proportion with the syndrome present premorbidly) were ADL limitation (33%), cognitive impairment (9%), and bladder incontinence (8%). Of the syndromes examined at discharge, a higher proportion of patients experienced the following new syndromes at discharge (absent premorbidly): ADL limitation (22%); and bladder incontinence (13%). CONCLUSION: Geriatric syndromes were highly prevalent. Many patients did not return to their premorbid function and acquired new syndromes.

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Background: Little is known about the relationship between women's birthing experiences and the development of trauma symptoms. This study aimed to determine the incidence of acute trauma symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder in women as a result of their labor and birth experiences, and to identify factors that contributed to the women's psychological distress. Method: Using a prospective, longitudinal design, women in their last trimester of pregnancy were recruited from four public hospital antenatal clinics. Telephone interviews with 499 participants were conducted at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum to explore the medical and midwifery management of the birth, perceptions of intrapartum care, and the presence of trauma symptoms. Results: One in three women (33%) identified a traumatic birthing event and reported the presence of at least three trauma symptoms. Twenty-eight women (5.6%) met DSM-IV criteria for acute posttraumatic stress disorder. Antenatal variables did not contribute to the development of acute or chronic trauma symptoms. The level of obstetric intervention experienced during childbirth (β= 0.351, p < 0.0001)and the perception of inadequate intrapartum care (β= 0.319, p < 0.0001) during labor were consistently associated with the development of acute trauma symptoms. Conclusions: Posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth is a poorly recognized phenomenon. Women who experienced both a high level of obstetric intervention and dissatisfaction with their intrapartum care were more likely to develop trauma symptoms than women who received a high level of obstetric intervention or women who perceived their care to be inadequate. These findings should prompt a serious review of intrusive obstetric intervention during labor and delivery, and the care provided to birthing women.

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Background: Access to cardiac services is essential for appropriate implementation of evidence-based therapies to improve outcomes. The Cardiac Accessibility and Remoteness Index for Australia (Cardiac ARIA) aimed to derive an objective, geographic measure reflecting access to cardiac services. Methods: An expert panel defined an evidence-based clinical pathway. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), a numeric/alpha index was developed at two points along the continuum of care. The acute category (numeric) measured the time from the emergency call to arrival at an appropriate medical facility via road ambulance. The aftercare category (alpha) measured access to four basic services (family doctor, pharmacy, cardiac rehabilitation, and pathology services) when a patient returned to their community. Results: The numeric index ranged from 1 (access to principle referral center with cardiac catheterization service ≤ 1 hour) to 8 (no ambulance service, > 3 hours to medical facility, air transport required). The alphabetic index ranged from A (all 4 services available within 1 hour drive-time) to E (no services available within 1 hour). 13.9 million (71%) Australians resided within Cardiac ARIA 1A locations (hospital with cardiac catheterization laboratory and all aftercare within 1 hour). Those outside Cardiac 1A were over-represented by people aged over 65 years (32%) and Indigenous people (60%). Conclusion: The Cardiac ARIA index demonstrated substantial inequity in access to cardiac services in Australia. This methodology can be used to inform cardiology health service planning and the methodology could be applied to other common disease states within other regions of the world.

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Background Comprehensive geriatric assessment has been shown to improve patient outcomes, but the geriatricians who deliver it are in short-supply. A web-based method of comprehensive geriatric assessment has been developed with the potential to improve access to specialist geriatric expertise. The current study aims to test the reliability and safety of comprehensive geriatric assessment performed “online” in making geriatric triage decisions. It will also explore the accuracy of the procedure in identifying common geriatric syndromes, and its cost relative to conventional “live” consultations. Methods/Design The study population will consist of 270 acutely hospitalized patients referred for geriatric consultation at three sites. Paired assessments (live and online) will be conducted by independent, blinded geriatricians and the level of agreement examined. This will be compared with the level of agreement between two independent, blinded geriatricians each consulting with the patient in person (i.e. “live”). Agreement between the triage decision from live-live assessments and between the triage decision from live-online assessments will be calculated using kappa statistics. Agreement between the online and live detection of common geriatric syndromes will also be assessed using kappa statistics. Resource use data will be collected for online and live-live assessments to allow comparison between the two procedures. Discussion If the online approach is found to be less precise than live assessment, further analysis will seek to identify patient subgroups where disagreement is more likely. This may enable a protocol to be developed that avoids unsafe clinical decisions at a distance. Trial registration Trial registration number: ACTRN12611000936921

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In an aging population, healthcare providers should understand the foodservice preferences of the elderly to reduce the risk of malnutrition through adequate nutrition. Conflicting reports exist for elderly patient satisfaction regarding foodservice.1 This study aimed to investigate the relationship between age and foodservice satisfaction within the acute care hospital setting. Patient satisfaction was assessed using the Acute Care Hospital Foodservice Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire with data collected over three years (2008–2010, n = 785) at The Wesley Hospital, Brisbane. Age was grouped into three categories; <50, 51–70 and >70 years. ANOVA was used to measure age related differences in patients’ overall foodservice satisfaction, four foodservice dimensions and two independent statements (meal size and hot food temperature). Results showed that older patients were more satisfied than younger patients and indicated increasing satisfaction with increasing age regarding food quality (F2,767 = 15.787, p < 0.001), staff/service issues (F2,768 = 12.243, p < 0.001), physical environment (F2,765 = 5.454, p = 0.004), meal size (F2,730 = 10.646, p < 0.001) and hot food temperature (F2,730 = 10.646, p < 0.001). While patients aged >70 years also reported greater satisfaction with meal service quality, those aged 51–70 years indicated the lowest (F2,762 = 9.988, p < 0.001). Overall patient satisfaction across all age groups was high (4.26–4.43/5) and a trend of increasing satisfaction with increasing age was evident (F2,752 = 2.900, p = 0.056). These findings suggest patients’ satisfaction with hospital foodservice increases with age and can assist foodservices to meet the varying generational expectations of their clients.

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Objectives:Despite many years of research, there is currently no treatment available that results in major neurological or functional recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI). In particular, no conclusive data related to the role of the timing of decompressive surgery, and the impact of injury severity on its benefit, have been published to date. This paper presents a protocol that was designed to examine the hypothesized association between the timing of surgical decompression and the extent of neurological recovery in tSCI patients.Study design: The SCI-POEM study is a Prospective, Observational European Multicenter comparative cohort study. This study compares acute (<12 h) versus non-acute (>12 h, <2 weeks) decompressive surgery in patients with a traumatic spinal column injury and concomitant spinal cord injury. The sample size calculation was based on a representative European patient cohort of 492 tSCI patients. During a 4-year period, 300 patients will need to be enrolled from 10 trauma centers across Europe. The primary endpoint is lower-extremity motor score as assessed according to the 'International standards for neurological classification of SCI' at 12 months after injury. Secondary endpoints include motor, sensory, imaging and functional outcomes at 3, 6 and 12 months after injury.Conclusion:In order to minimize bias and reduce the impact of confounders, special attention is paid to key methodological principles in this study protocol. A significant difference in safety and/or efficacy endpoints will provide meaningful information to clinicians, as this would confirm the hypothesis that rapid referral to and treatment in specialized centers result in important improvements in tSCI patients.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 17 April 2012; doi:10.1038/sc.2012.34.

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Metalloproteinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of equine laminitis and other inflammatory conditions, through their role in the degradation and remodelling of the extracellular matrix environment. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors are present in normal equine lamellae, with increased secretion and activation of some metalloproteinases reported in horses with laminitis associated with systemic inflammation. It is unknown whether these enzymes are involved in insulin-induced laminitis, which occurs without overt systemic inflammation. In this study, gene expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, ADAMTS-4 and TIMP-3 was determined in the lamellar tissue of normal control horses (n = 4) and horses that developed laminitis after 48 h of induced hyperinsulinaemia (n = 4), using quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Protein concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also examined using gelatin zymography in horses subject to prolonged hyperinsulinaemia for 6 h (n = 4), 12 h (n = 4), 24 h (n = 4) and 48 h (n = 4), and in normal control horses (n = 4). The only change in gene expression observed was an upregulation of MMP-9 (p < 0.05) in horses that developed insulin-induced laminitis (48 h). Zymographical analysis showed an increase (p < 0.05) in pro MMP-9 during the acute phase of laminitis (48 h), whereas pro MMP-2 was present in similar concentration in the tissue of all horses. Thus, MMP-2, MT1-MMP, TIMP-3 and ADAMTS-4 do not appear to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of insulin-induced laminitis. The increased expression of MMP-9 may be associated with the infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes, or may be a direct result of hyperinsulinaemia. The exact role of MMP-9 in basement membrane degradation in laminitis is uncertain as it appears to be present largely in the inactive form.

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Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression are leading causes of disease burden globally and the two often co-exist. Depression is common after Myocardial Infarction (MI) and it has been estimated that 15-35% of patients experience depressive symptoms. Co-morbid depression can impair health related quality of life (HRQOL), decrease medication adherence and appropriate utilisation of health services, lead to increased morbidity and suicide risk, and is associated with poorer CHD risk factor profiles and reduced survival. We aim to determine the feasibility of conducting a randomised, multi-centre trial designed to compare a tele-health program (MoodCare) for depression and CHD secondary prevention, with Usual Care (UC). Methods Over 1600 patients admitted after index admission for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) are being screened for depression at six metropolitan hospitals in the Australian states of Victoria and Queensland. Consenting participants are then contacted at two weeks post-discharge for baseline assessment. One hundred eligible participants are to be randomised to an intervention or a usual medical care control group (50 per group). The intervention consists of up to 10 × 30-40 minute structured telephone sessions, delivered by registered psychologists, commencing within two weeks of baseline screening. The intervention focuses on depression management, lifestyle factors (physical activity, healthy eating, smoking cessation, alcohol intake), medication adherence and managing co-morbidities. Data collection occurs at baseline (Time 1), 6 months (post-intervention) (Time 2), 12 months (Time 3) and 24 months follow-up for longer term effects (Time 4). We are comparing depression (Cardiac Depression Scale [CDS]) and HRQOL (Short Form-12 [SF-12]) scores between treatment and UC groups, assessing the feasibility of the program through patient acceptability and exploring long term maintenance effects. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the costs and outcomes for patients in the intervention and control groups is being conducted from the perspective of health care costs to the government. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a randomised, multi-centre trial to evaluate the feasibility of a tele-based depression management and CHD secondary prevention program for ACS patients. The results of this trial will provide valuable new information about potential psychological and wellbeing benefits, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of an innovative tele-based depression management and secondary prevention program for CHD patients experiencing depression.