998 resultados para Acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis


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In this short communication we wanted to find out what is the analgesic effect of single dose oral oxycodone, with or without the addition of paracetamol, for adults with postoperative pain? Oxycodone at doses of 5mg and above is an effective analgesia for patients with moderate to severe postoperative pain. The efficacy of oxycodone is increased with the addition of paracetamol. The use of oxycodone 10mg plus paracetamol 625mg can be considered for use in the pain relief protocol in post-operative settings. Clinicians should consider a range of factors before prescribing or administering oxycodone for acute post-operative pain, including but not limited to, individual patient clinical profile, adverse effects, cost and patient preference.

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The literature reports that workload factors affect nurses' ability to fully engage in continuing professional development. Hence the work environment in acute care calls for innovative approaches to achieve continuous development of nursing practice and work satisfaction. This study employs a one group pre-test post-test design to test the effectiveness of nursing grand rounds on nursing worklife satisfaction and work environment in an acute surgical ward. The effect of nursing grand rounds was measured using the Nursing Worklife Satisfaction Scale and the Practice Environment Scale. There was no change between pre- and post-test on these measures but trends were evident in some component scores. Statistical results were inconclusive but observational data indicated that nursing grand rounds was found to be feasible, well attended with tested processes for implementation in an acute care environment.

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Background: Violence in health care has been widely reported and health care workers, particularly nurses in acute care settings, are ill-equipped to manage patients who exhibit aggressive traits. Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to establish best practice in the prevention and management of aggressive behaviours in patients admitted to acute hospital settings. Data Sources: An extensive search of the major databases was conducted from 1990 to 2007. The search included published and unpublished studies and papers in English. Review Methods: This review considered any quantitative research study design that evaluated the effectiveness of interventions in the prevention and management of patients who exhibit aggressive behaviours in an acute hospital setting. Each included study was quality assessed by two independent reviewers and data were extracted using the relevant tools developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Results: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The evidence identified from the studies includes: the benefit of education and training of acute care nurses in aggression management techniques; use of “as required” medications is effective in minimising harm to patients and staff; and that specific interventions such as physical restraint may play a role in managing aggressive behaviours from patients in the acute care setting. Conclusions: This review makes several recommendations for the prevention and management of aggressive behaviours in acute hospital patients. However, due to the lack of high-quality studies conducted in the acute care setting there is huge scope for future research in this area.

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Objectives The effects of 30 min of exercise on postprandial lipaemia in the overweight and obese are unknown as previous studies have only investigated bouts of at least 60 min in lean, healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a single 30-min bout of resistance, aerobic or combined exercise at moderate-intensity would decrease postprandial lipaemia, glucose and insulin levels as well as increase resting energy expenditure and increase fat oxidation following a high fat meal consumed 14 h after the exercise bout, in overweight and obese individuals compared to no exercise. We also compared the effects of the different exercise modalities. Methods This study was a randomized cross-over design which examined the postprandial effects of 30 min of different types of exercise in the evening prior to a breakfast meal in overweight and obese men and women. Participants were randomized on four occasions, each one-week apart, to each condition; either no exercise, aerobic exercise, resistance exercise or a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise. Results An acute bout of combination training did not have any significant effect on postprandial measurements compared to no exercise. However, aerobic exercise significantly reduced postprandial triglyceride levels by 8% compared to no exercise (p = 0.02) and resistance exercise decreased postprandial insulin levels by 30% compared to aerobic exercise (p = 0.01). Conclusion These results indicate that a single moderate-intensity 30 min bout of aerobic or resistance exercise improves risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in overweight and obese individuals.

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OBJECTIVES: To compare three different methods of falls reporting and examine the characteristics of the data missing from the hospital incident reporting system. DESIGN: Fourteen-month prospective observational study nested within a randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Rehabilitation, stroke, medical, surgical, and orthopedic wards in Perth and Brisbane, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Fallers (n5153) who were part of a larger trial (1,206 participants, mean age 75.1 � 11.0). MEASUREMENTS: Three falls events reporting measures: participants’ self-report of fall events, fall events reported in participants’ case notes, and falls events reported through the hospital reporting systems. RESULTS: The three reporting systems identified 245 falls events in total. Participants’ case notes captured 226 (92.2%) falls events, hospital incident reporting systems captured 185 (75.5%) falls events, and participant selfreport captured 147 (60.2%) falls events. Falls events were significantly less likely to be recorded in hospital reporting systems when a participant sustained a subsequent fall, (P5.01) or when the fall occurred in the morning shift (P5.01) or afternoon shift (P5.01). CONCLUSION: Falls data missing from hospital incident report systems are not missing completely at random and therefore will introduce bias in some analyses if the factor investigated is related to whether the data ismissing.Multimodal approaches to collecting falls data are preferable to relying on a single source alone.

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Background: The transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is influenced by climatic variables. However, few studies have examined the quantitative relationship between climate variation and HFRS transmission. ---------- Objective: We examined the potential impact of climate variability on HFRS transmission and developed climate-based forecasting models for HFRS in northeastern China. ---------- Methods: We obtained data on monthly counts of reported HFRS cases in Elunchun and Molidawahaner counties for 1997–2007 from the Inner Mongolia Center for Disease Control and Prevention and climate data from the Chinese Bureau of Meteorology. Cross-correlations assessed crude associations between climate variables, including rainfall, land surface temperature (LST), relative humidity (RH), and the multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index (MEI) and monthly HFRS cases over a range of lags. We used time-series Poisson regression models to examine the independent contribution of climatic variables to HFRS transmission. ----------- Results: Cross-correlation analyses showed that rainfall, LST, RH, and MEI were significantly associated with monthly HFRS cases with lags of 3–5 months in both study areas. The results of Poisson regression indicated that after controlling for the autocorrelation, seasonality, and long-term trend, rainfall, LST, RH, and MEI with lags of 3–5 months were associated with HFRS in both study areas. The final model had good accuracy in forecasting the occurrence of HFRS. ---------- Conclusions: Climate variability plays a significant role in HFRS transmission in northeastern China. The model developed in this study has implications for HFRS control and prevention.

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Heart damage caused by acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a leading cause of death and disability in Australia. Novel therapies are still required for the treatment of this condition due to the poor reparative ability of the heart. As such, cellular therapies that assist in the recovery of heart muscle are of great current interest. Culture expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent a stem and progenitor cell population that has been shown to promote tissue recovery in pre-clinical studies of AMI. For MSC-based therapies in the clinic, an intravenous route of administration would ideally be used due to the low cost, ease of delivery and relative safety. The study of MSC migration is therefore clinically relevant for a minimally invasive cell therapy to promote regeneration of damaged tissue. C57BL/6, UBI-GFP-BL/6 and CD44-/-/GFP+/+ mice were utilised to investigate mMSC migration. To assist in murine models of MSC migration, a novel method was used for the isolation of murine MSC (mMSC). These mMSC were then expanded in culture and putative mMSC were positive for Sca-1, CD90.2, and CD44 and were negative for CD45 and CD11b. Furthermore, mMSC from C57BL/6 and UBI-GFP-BL/6 mice were shown to differentiate into cells of the mesodermal lineage. Cells from CD44-/-/GFP+/+ mice were positive for Sca-1 and CD90.2, and negative for CD44, CD45 and CD11b however, these cells were unable to differentiate into adipocytes and chondrocytes and express lineage specific genes, PLIN and ACAN. Analysis of mMSC chemokine receptor (CR) expression showed that although mMSC do express chemokine receptors, (including those specific for chemokines released after AMI), these were low or undetectable by mRNA. However, protein expression could be detected, which was predominantly cytoplasmic. It was further shown that in both healthy (unperturbed) and inflamed tissues, mMSC had very little specific migration and engraftment after intravenous injection. To determine if poor mMSC migration was due to the inability of mMSC to respond to chemotactic stimuli, chemokine expression in bone marrow, skin injury and hearts (healthy and after AMI) was analysed at various time points by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT PCR). Many chemokines were up-regulated after skin biopsy and AMI, but the highest acute levels were found for CXCL12 and CCL7. Due to their high expression in infarcted hearts, the chemokines CXCL12 and CCL7 were tested for their effect on mMSC migration. Despite CR expression at both protein and mRNA levels, migration in response to CXCL12 and CCL7 was low in mMSC cultured on Nunclon plastic. A novel tissue culture plastic technology (UpCellTM) was then used that allowed gentle non-enzymatic dissociation of mMSC, thus preserving surface expression of the CRs. Despite this the in vitro data indicated that CXCL12 fails to induce significant migration ability of mMSC, while CCL7 induces significant, but low-level migration. We speculated this may be because of low levels of surface expression of chemokine receptors. In a strategy to increase cell surface expression of mMSC chemokine receptors and enhance their in vitro and in vivo migration capacity, mMSC were pre-treated with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Increased levels of both mRNA and surface protein expression were found for CRs by pre-treating mMSC with pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-á, IFN-ã, IL-1á and IL-6. Furthermore, the chemotactic response of mMSC to CXCL12 and CCL7 was significantly higher with these pretreated cells. Finally, the effectiveness of this type of cell manipulation was demonstrated in vivo, where mMSC pre-treated with TNF-á and IFN-ã showed significantly increased migration in skin injury and AMI models. Therefore this thesis has demonstrated, using in vitro and in vivo models, the potential for prior manipulation of MSC as a possible means for increasing the utility of intravenously delivery for MSC-based cellular therapies.

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Background Significant ongoing learning needs for nurses have occurred as a direct result of the continuous introduction of technological innovations and research developments in the healthcare environment. Despite an increased worldwide emphasis on the importance of continuing education, there continues to be an absence of empirical evidence of program and session effectiveness. Few studies determine whether continuing education enhances or develops practice and the relative cost benefits of health professionals’ participation in professional development. The implications for future clinical practice and associated educational approaches to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse multigenerational and multicultural workforce are also not well documented. There is minimal research confirming that continuing education programs contribute to improved patient outcomes, nurses’ earlier detection of patient deterioration or that standards of continuing competence are maintained. Crucially, evidence-based practice is demonstrated and international quality and safety benchmarks are adhered to. An integrated clinical learning model was developed to inform ongoing education for acute care nurses. Educational strategies included the use of integrated learning approaches, interactive teaching concepts and learner-centred pedagogies. A Respiratory Skills Update education (ReSKU) program was used as the content for the educational intervention to inform surgical nurses’ clinical practice in the area of respiratory assessment. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing the ReSKU program using teaching and learning strategies, in the context of organisational utility, on improving surgical nurses’ practice in the area of respiratory assessment. The education program aimed to facilitate better awareness, knowledge and understanding of respiratory dysfunction in the postoperative clinical environment. This research was guided by the work of Forneris (2004), who developed a theoretical framework to operationalise a critical thinking process incorporating the complexities of the clinical context. The framework used educational strategies that are learner-centred and participatory. These strategies aimed to engage the clinician in dynamic thinking processes in clinical practice situations guided by coaches and educators. Methods A quasi experimental pre test, post test non–equivalent control group design was used to evaluate the impact of the ReSKU program on the clinical practice of surgical nurses. The research tested the hypothesis that participation in the ReSKU program improves the reported beliefs and attitudes of surgical nurses, increases their knowledge and reported use of respiratory assessment skills. The study was conducted in a 400 bed regional referral public hospital, the central hub of three smaller hospitals, in a health district servicing the coastal and hinterland areas north of Brisbane. The sample included 90 nurses working in the three surgical wards eligible for inclusion in the study. The experimental group consisted of 36 surgical nurses who had chosen to attend the ReSKU program and consented to be part of the study intervention group. The comparison group included the 39 surgical nurses who elected not to attend the ReSKU program, but agreed to participate in the study. Findings One of the most notable findings was that nurses choosing not to participate were older, more experienced and less well educated. The data demonstrated that there was a barrier for training which impacted on educational strategies as this mature aged cohort was less likely to take up educational opportunities. The study demonstrated statistically significant differences between groups regarding reported use of respiratory skills, three months after ReSKU program attendance. Between group data analysis indicated that the intervention group’s reported beliefs and attitudes pertaining to subscale descriptors showed statistically significant differences in three of the six subscales following attendance at the ReSKU program. These subscales included influence on nursing care, educational preparation and clinical development. Findings suggest that the use of an integrated educational model underpinned by a robust theoretical framework is a strong factor in some perceptions of the ReSKU program relating to attitudes and behaviour. There were minimal differences in knowledge between groups across time. Conclusions This study was consistent with contemporary educational approaches using multi-modal, interactive teaching strategies and a robust overarching theoretical framework to support study concepts. The construct of critical thinking in the clinical context, combined with clinical reasoning and purposeful and collective reflection, was a powerful educational strategy to enhance competency and capability in clinicians.

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Physical inactivity is a leading factor associated with cardiovascular disease and a major contributor to the global burden of disease in developed countries. Subjective mood states associated with acute exercise are likely to influence future exercise adherence and warrant further investigation. The present study examined the effects of a single bout of vigorous exercise on mood and anxiety between individuals with substantially different exercise participation histories. Mood and anxiety were assessed one day before an exercise test (baseline), 5 minutes before (pre-test) and again 10 and 25 minutes post-exercise. Participants were 31 university students (16 males, 15 females; Age M = 20), with 16 participants reporting a history of regular exercise with the remaining 15 reporting to not exercise regularly. Each participant completed an incremental exercise test on a Monark cycle ergometer to volitional exhaustion. Regular exercisers reported significant post-exercise improvements in mood and reductions in state anxiety. By contrast, non-regular exercisers reported an initial decline in post-exercise mood and increased anxiety, followed by an improvement in mood and reduction in anxiety back to pre-exercise levels. Our findings suggest that previous exercise participation mediates affective responses to acute bouts of vigorous exercise. We suggest that to maximise positive mood changes following exercise, practitioners should carefully consider the individual’s exercise participation history before prescribing new regimes.

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While much of the genetic variation in RNA viruses arises because of the error-prone nature of their RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, much larger changes may occur as a result of recombination. An extreme example of genetic change is found in defective interfering (DI) viral particles, where large sections of the genome of a parental virus have been deleted and the residual sub-genome fragment is replicated by complementation by co-infecting functional viruses. While most reports of DI particles have referred to studies in vitro, there is some evidence for the presence of DI particles in chronic viral infections in vivo. In this study, short fragments of dengue virus (DENV) RNA containing only key regulatory elements at the 3' and 5' ends of the genome were recovered from the sera of patients infected with any of the four DENV serotypes. Identical RNA fragments were detected in the supernatant from cultures of Aedes mosquito cells that were infected by the addition of sera from dengue patients, suggesting that the sub-genomic RNA might be transmitted between human and mosquito hosts in defective interfering (DI) viral particles. In vitro transcribed sub-genomic RNA corresponding to that detected in vivo could be packaged in virus like particles in the presence of wild type virus and transmitted for at least three passages in cell culture. DENV preparations enriched for these putative DI particles reduced the yield of wild type dengue virus following co-infections of C6-36 cells. This is the first report of DI particles in an acute arboviral infection in nature. The internal genomic deletions described here are the most extensive defects observed in DENV and may be part of a much broader disease attenuating process that is mediated by defective viruses.

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Older adults, especially those acutely ill, are vulnerable to developing malnutrition due to a range of risk factors. The high prevalence and extensive consequences of malnutrition in hospitalised older adults have been reported extensively. However, there are few well-designed longitudinal studies that report the independent relationship between malnutrition and clinical outcomes after adjustment for a wide range of covariates. Acutely ill older adults are exceptionally prone to nutritional decline during hospitalisation, but few reports have studied this change and impact on clinical outcomes. In the rapidly ageing Singapore population, all this evidence is lacking, and the characteristics associated with the risk of malnutrition are also not well-documented. Despite the evidence on malnutrition prevalence, it is often under-recognised and under-treated. It is therefore crucial that validated nutrition screening and assessment tools are used for early identification of malnutrition. Although many nutrition screening and assessment tools are available, there is no universally accepted method for defining malnutrition risk and nutritional status. Most existing tools have been validated amongst Caucasians using various approaches, but they are rarely reported in the Asian elderly and none has been validated in Singapore. Due to the multiethnicity, cultural, and language differences in Singapore older adults, the results from non-Asian validation studies may not be applicable. Therefore it is important to identify validated population and setting specific nutrition screening and assessment methods to accurately detect and diagnose malnutrition in Singapore. The aims of this study are therefore to: i) characterise hospitalised elderly in a Singapore acute hospital; ii) describe the extent and impact of admission malnutrition; iii) identify and evaluate suitable methods for nutritional screening and assessment; and iv) examine changes in nutritional status during admission and their impact on clinical outcomes. A total of 281 participants, with a mean (+SD) age of 81.3 (+7.6) years, were recruited from three geriatric wards in Tan Tock Seng Hospital over a period of eight months. They were predominantly Chinese (83%) and community-dwellers (97%). They were screened within 72 hours of admission by a single dietetic technician using four nutrition screening tools [Tan Tock Seng Hospital Nutrition Screening Tool (TTSH NST), Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002), Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ©)] that were administered in no particular order. The total scores were not computed during the screening process so that the dietetic technician was blinded to the results of all the tools. Nutritional status was assessed by a single dietitian, who was blinded to the screening results, using four malnutrition assessment methods [Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), body mass index (BMI), and corrected arm muscle area (CAMA)]. The SGA rating was completed prior to computation of the total MNA score to minimise bias. Participants were reassessed for weight, arm anthropometry (mid-arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness), and SGA rating at discharge from the ward. The nutritional assessment tools and indices were validated against clinical outcomes (length of stay (LOS) >11days, discharge to higher level care, 3-month readmission, 6-month mortality, and 6-month Modified Barthel Index) using multivariate logistic regression. The covariates included age, gender, race, dementia (defined using DSM IV criteria), depression (defined using a single question “Do you often feel sad or depressed?”), severity of illness (defined using a modified version of the Severity of Illness Index), comorbidities (defined using Charlson Comorbidity Index, number of prescribed drugs and admission functional status (measured using Modified Barthel Index; MBI). The nutrition screening tools were validated against the SGA, which was found to be the most appropriate nutritional assessment tool from this study (refer section 5.6) Prevalence of malnutrition on admission was 35% (defined by SGA), and it was significantly associated with characteristics such as swallowing impairment (malnourished vs well-nourished: 20% vs 5%), poor appetite (77% vs 24%), dementia (44% vs 28%), depression (34% vs 22%), and poor functional status (MBI 48.3+29.8 vs 65.1+25.4). The SGA had the highest completion rate (100%) and was predictive of the highest number of clinical outcomes: LOS >11days (OR 2.11, 95% CI [1.17- 3.83]), 3-month readmission (OR 1.90, 95% CI [1.05-3.42]) and 6-month mortality (OR 3.04, 95% CI [1.28-7.18]), independent of a comprehensive range of covariates including functional status, disease severity and cognitive function. SGA is therefore the most appropriate nutritional assessment tool for defining malnutrition. The TTSH NST was identified as the most suitable nutritional screening tool with the best diagnostic performance against the SGA (AUC 0.865, sensitivity 84%, specificity 79%). Overall, 44% of participants experienced weight loss during hospitalisation, and 27% had weight loss >1% per week over median LOS 9 days (range 2-50). Wellnourished (45%) and malnourished (43%) participants were equally prone to experiencing decline in nutritional status (defined by weight loss >1% per week). Those with reduced nutritional status were more likely to be discharged to higher level care (adjusted OR 2.46, 95% CI [1.27-4.70]). This study is the first to characterise malnourished hospitalised older adults in Singapore. It is also one of the very few studies to (a) evaluate the association of admission malnutrition with clinical outcomes in a multivariate model; (b) determine the change in their nutritional status during admission; and (c) evaluate the validity of nutritional screening and assessment tools amongst hospitalised older adults in an Asian population. Results clearly highlight that admission malnutrition and deterioration in nutritional status are prevalent and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes in hospitalised older adults. With older adults being vulnerable to risks and consequences of malnutrition, it is important that they are systematically screened so timely and appropriate intervention can be provided. The findings highlighted in this thesis provide an evidence base for, and confirm the validity of the current nutrition screening and assessment tools used among hospitalised older adults in Singapore. As the older adults may have developed malnutrition prior to hospital admission, or experienced clinically significant weight loss of >1% per week of hospitalisation, screening of the elderly should be initiated in the community and continuous nutritional monitoring should extend beyond hospitalisation.