998 resultados para Acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis


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In this age of evidence-based practice, nurses are increasingly expected to use research evidence in a systematic and judicious way when making decisions about patient care practices. Clinicians recognise the role of research when it provides valid, realistic answers in practical situations. Nonetheless, research is still perceived by some nurses as external to practice and implementing research findings into practice is often difficult. Since its conceptual platform in the 1960s, the emergence and growth of Nursing Development Units, and later, Practice Development Units has been described in the literature as strategic, organisational vehicles for changing the way nurses think about nursing by promoting and supporting a culture of inquiry and research-based practice. Thus, some scholars argue that practice development is situated in the gap between research and practice. Since the 1990s, the discourse has shifted from the structure and outcomes of developing practice to the process of developing practice, using a Practice Development methodology; underpinned by critical social science theory, as a vehicle for changing the culture and context of care. The nursing and practice development literature is dominated by descriptive reports of local practice development activity, typically focusing on reflection on processes or outcomes of processes, and describing perceived benefits. However, despite the volume of published literature, there is little published empirical research in the Australian or international context on the effectiveness of Practice Development as a methodology for changing the culture and context of care - leaving a gap in the literature. The aim of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a Practice Development model for clinical practice review and change on changing the culture and context of care for nurses working in an acute care setting. A longitudinal, pre-test/post-test, non-equivalent control group design was used to answer the following research questions: 1. Is there a relationship between nurses' perceptions of the culture and context of care and nurses' perceptions of research and evidence-based practice? 2. Is there a relationship between engagement in a facilitated process of Practice Development and change in nurses' perceptions of the culture and context of care? 3. Is there a relationship between engagement in a facilitated process of Practice Development and change in nurses' perceptions of research and evidence-based practice? Through a critical analysis of the literature and synthesis of the findings of past evaluations of Nursing and Practice Development structures and processes, this research has identified key attributes consistent throughout the chronological and theoretical development of Nursing and Practice Development that exemplify a culture and context of care that is conducive to creating a culture of inquiry and evidence-based practice. The study findings were then used in the development, validation and testing of an instrument to measure change in the culture and context of care. Furthermore, this research has also provided empirical evidence of the relationship of the key attributes to each other and to barriers to research and evidence-based practice. The research also provides empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of a Practice Development methodology in changing the culture and context of care. This research is noteworthy in its contribution to advancing the discipline of nursing by providing evidence of the degree to which attributes of the culture and context of care, namely autonomy and control, workplace empowerment and constructive team dynamics, can be connected to engagement with research and evidence-based practice.

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Patients with chest discomfort or other symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are one of the most common categories seen in many Emergency Departments (EDs). While the recognition of patients at high-risk of ACS has improved steadily, identifying the majority of chest pain presentations who fall into the low-risk group remains a challenge. Research in this area needs to be transparent, robust, applicable to all hospitals from large tertiary centres to rural and remote sites, and to allow direct comparison between different studies with minimum patient spectrum bias. A standardised approach to the research framework using a common language for data definitions must be adopted to achieve this. The aim was to create a common framework for a standardised data definitions set that would allow maximum value when extrapolating research findings both within Australasian ED practice, and across similar populations worldwide. Therefore a comprehensive data definitions set for the investigation of non-traumatic chest pain patients with possible ACS was developed, specifically for use in the ED setting. This standardised data definitions set will facilitate ‘knowledge translation’ by allowing extrapolation of useful findings into the real-life practice of emergency medicine.

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Objective: To investigate the acute effects of isolated eccentric and concentric calf muscle exercise on Achilles tendon sagittal thickness. ---------- Design: Within-subject, counterbalanced, mixed design. ---------- Setting: Institutional. ---------- Participants: 11 healthy, recreationally active male adults. ---------- Interventions: Participants performed an exercise protocol, which involved isolated eccentric loading of the Achilles tendon of a single limb and isolated concentric loading of the contralateral, both with the addition of 20% bodyweight. ---------- Main outcome measurements: Sagittal sonograms were acquired prior to, immediately following and 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after exercise. Tendon thickness was measured 2 cm proximal to the superior aspect of the calcaneus. ---------- Results: Both loading conditions resulted in an immediate decrease in normalised Achilles tendon thickness. Eccentric loading induced a significantly greater decrease than concentric loading despite a similar impulse (−0.21 vs −0.05, p<0.05). Post-exercise, eccentrically loaded tendons recovered exponentially, with a recovery time constant of 2.5 h. The same exponential function did not adequately model changes in tendon thickness resulting from concentric loading. Even so, recovery pathways subsequent to the 3 h time point were comparable. Regardless of the exercise protocol, full tendon thickness recovery was not observed until 24 h. ---------- Conclusions: Eccentric loading invokes a greater reduction in Achilles tendon thickness immediately after exercise but appears to recover fully in a similar time frame to concentric loading.

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Geriatric nursing competency in the acute care setting is a social mandate for the 21st century. This article reports on the content validation of an Australian research instrument, the Older Patients in Acute Care Survey (OPACS) that examines the attitudes, the knowledge, and the practices of nurses working with acute care patients. The OPACS tool was developed primarily to assist nurse educators to assess attitudes, knowledge, and practices of nursing staff in caring for older patients in the acute care setting; to evaluate the implementation of institution-specific educational interventions; and to improve quality of care given to older patients. An overall content validity index (CVI) for the OPACS was calculated (CVI = .918), revealing high content validity. Opinions (CVI = .92) and practices (CVI = .97) subconstructs revealed high content validity as well. Therefore, results indicate that the OPACS has high content validity in the U.S. acute care setting and could assist nurse educators in establishing and enhancing nurse competency in the care for geriatric patients in the future.

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This naturalistic study investigated the mechanisms of change in measures of negative thinking and in 24-h urinary metabolites of noradrenaline (norepinephrine), dopamine and serotonin in a sample of 43 depressed hospital patients attending an eight-session group cognitive behavior therapy program. Most participants (91%) were taking antidepressant medication throughout the therapy period according to their treating Psychiatrists' prescriptions. The sample was divided into outcome categories (19 Responders and 24 Non-responders) on the basis of a clinically reliable change index [Jacobson, N.S., & Truax, P., 1991. Clinical significance: a statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 12–19.] applied to the Beck Depression Inventory scores at the end of the therapy. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance [ANOVA] analyses of variance indicated that all measures of negative thinking improved significantly during therapy, and significantly more so in the Responders as expected. The treatment had a significant impact on urinary adrenaline and metadrenaline excretion however, these changes occurred in both Responders and Non-responders. Acute treatment did not significantly influence the six other monoamine metabolites. In summary, changes in urinary monoamine levels during combined treatment for depression were not associated with self-reported changes in mood symptoms.

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In this short communication we wanted to find out what is the analgesic effect of single dose oral Ibuprofen for adults with postoperative pain? Ibuprofen at 200mg and 400mg are effective in producing at least 50% pain relief in patients with moderate to severe postoperative pain (at least 30mm on a VAS). They are safe to use without common adverse effects. The use of Ibuprofen 200mg or 400mg should be considered as standard practice or protocol for pain relief in post-operative settings. Clinicians should consider a range of factors before prescribing or administering Ibuprofen for acute post-operative pain, including but not limited to, the duration of pain relief with Ibuprofen of different doses, Ibuprofen formulation, cost and patient preference.

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BACKGROUND: Western studies have suggested that emotional stress and distress impacted on the morbidity and mortality in people following acute coronary events. Symptoms of anxiety and depression have been associated with re-infarction and death, prolonged recovery and disability and depression may precipitate the client's low self-esteem. This study examined perceived anxiety, depression and self-esteem of Hong Kong Chinese clients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) over a 6-month period following hospital admission. OBJECTIVES: To examine: DESIGN: A prospective, repeated measures design with measures taken on two occasions over a 6-month period; (1) within the 1st week of hospital admission following the onset of ACS and (2) at 6 months follow up. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Convenient sample of 182 voluntary consented clients admitted with ACS to a major public hospital in Hong Kong who could communicate in Chinese, complete questionnaires, cognitive intact, and were haemodynamically stable and free from acute chest pain at the time of interview. METHODS: Baseline data were obtained within 1 week after hospital admission. The follow-up data was collected 6 months after hospital discharge. The Chinese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), State Self-esteem Scale (SSES), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were used to assess anxiety and depression, state self-esteem, and trait self-esteem, respectively. RESULTS: Findings suggested gender differences in clients' perception in anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Improvements in clients' perception of these variables were evident over the 6-month period following their acute coronary events. CONCLUSION: The study confirmed the western notion that psychosocial problems are common among coronary clients and this also applies to Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with ACS. Further studies to explore effective interventions to address these psychosocial issues are recommended.

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Within contemporary inpatient mental health nursing practice, the psychodynamic model of care considered previously to be central to the nurse-patient relationship now seems a radical concept. It appears to exist only within primary care facilities and public health care practice settings. This naturalistic inquiry aimed to explicate mental health nurses' perspectives and expectations of providing psychodynamic therapeutic care in acute inpatient psychiatric facilities. Ten registered nurses working in acute inpatient mental health facilities were interviewed. Five themes emerged: a career for life, relating in a psychodynamic manner, swimming against the current, adopting a position of difference, and hopeful expectancy.

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Objectives: To assess the validity of the Waterlow screening tool in a cohort of internal medicine patients and to identify factors contributing to pressure injury. Design: Longitudinal cohort study Setting: A tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia Participants: 274 patients admitted through the Emergency Department or outpatient clinics and expected to remain in hospital for at least three days were included in the study. The mean age was 65.3 years. Interventions: Patients were screened on admission using the Waterlow screening tool. Every second day, their pressure ulcer status was monitored and recorded. Main outcome measures: Pressure ulcer incidence Results: Fifteen participants (5.5%) had an existing pressure ulcer and a further 12 (4.4%) developed a pressure ulcer during their hospital stay. Sensitivity of the Waterlow scale was 0.67, (95% CI: 0.35 to 0.88); specificity 0.79, (95% CI: 0.73 to 0.85); PPV 0.13, (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.24); NPV 0.98, (95% CI: 0.94 to 0.99). Conclusion: This study provides further evidence of the poor predictive validity of the Waterlow scale. A suitably powered randomised controlled trial is urgently needed to provide definitive evidence about the usefulness of the Waterlow scale compared with other screening tools and with clinical judgement.

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The effects of exercise and breakfast manipulations on mood and motivation to eat were assessed in 11 healthy females who were regular exercisers and habitual breakfast eaters. The study involved a two by two repeated-measures design, with exercise (or no exercise) and a high-energy breakfast (or low-energy breakfast) as the repeated measures. The exercise or no-exercise session (0800 h) was followed by consumption of the low- or high-energy breakfast (0900 h). An ad libitum lunch test meal was provided 4 hours after the beginning of the exercise session (1200 h). Mood and motivation to eat were continuously tracked from 0800 until 1700 h by an electronic appetite ratings system (EARS). In general, morning subjective mood states (e.g., contentment) were significantly lower in the low-energy breakfast condition, but exercise reversed this effect. Exercise also significantly decreased feelings of lethargy, independent of the breakfast condition. Desire-to-eat and fullness ratings were significantly increased in the low-energy breakfast and high-energy breakfast conditions, respectively. Impairments of mood disappeared in the afternoon after consumption of an ad libitum lunch. In these healthy young adults, the condition inducing the largest energy deficit (exercise and low-energy breakfast) was not associated with the lowest mental states.

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Serotonergic hypofunction is associated with a depressive mood state, an increased drive to eat and preference for sweet (SW) foods. High-trait anxiety individuals are characterised by a functional shortage of serotonin during stress, which in turn increases their susceptibility to experience a negative mood and an increased drive for SW foods. The present study examined whether an acute dietary manipulation, intended to increase circulating serotonin levels, alleviated the detrimental effects of a stress-inducing task on subjective appetite and mood sensations, and preference for SW foods in high-trait anxiety individuals. Thirteen high- (eleven females and two males; anxiety scores 45·5 (sd 5·9); BMI 22·9 (sd 3·0)kg/m2) and twelve low- (ten females and two males; anxiety scores 30·4 (sd 4·8); BMI 23·4 (sd 2·5) kg/m2) trait anxiety individuals participated in a placebo-controlled, two-way crossover design. Participants were provided with 40 g α-lactalbumin (LAC; l-tryptophan (Trp):large neutral amino acids (LNAA) ratio of 7·6) and 40 g casein (placebo) (Trp:LNAA ratio of 4·0) in the form of a snack and lunch on two test days. On both the test days, participants completed a stress-inducing task 2 h after the lunch. Mood and appetite were assessed using visual analogue scales. Changes in food hedonics for different taste and nutrient combinations were assessed using a computer task. The results demonstrated that the LAC manipulation did not exert any immediate effects on mood or appetite. However, LAC did have an effect on food hedonics in individuals with high-trait anxiety after acute stress. These individuals expressed a lower liking (P = 0·012) and SW food preference (P = 0·014) after the stressful task when supplemented with LAC.

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Purpose of review: To examine the relationship between energy intake, appetite control and exercise, with particular reference to longer term exercise studies. This approach is necessary when exploring the benefits of exercise for weight control, as changes in body weight and energy intake are variable and reflect diversity in weight loss. Recent findings: Recent evidence indicates that longer term exercise is characterized by a highly variable response in eating behaviour. Individuals display susceptibility or resistance to exercise-induced weight loss, with changes in energy intake playing a key role in determining the degree of weight loss achieved. Marked differences in hunger and energy intake exist between those who are capable of tolerating periods of exercise-induced energy deficit, and those who are not. Exercise-induced weight loss can increase the orexigenic drive in the fasted state, but for some this is offset by improved postprandial satiety signalling. Summary: The biological and behavioural responses to acute and long-term exercise are highly variable, and these responses interact to determine the propensity for weight change. For some people, long-term exercise stimulates compensatory increases in energy intake that attenuate weight loss. However, favourable changes in body composition and health markers still exist in the absence of weight loss. The physiological mechanisms that confer susceptibility to compensatory overconsumption still need to be determined.