998 resultados para Acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis


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Background. Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is an alternative to blood transfusion in surgeries involving blood loss. This experimental study was designed to evaluate whether pulse pressure variation (PPV) would be an adequate tool for monitoring changes in preload during ANH, as assessed by transesophageal echocardiography. Methods. Twenty-one anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs were randomized into three groups: CTL (control), HES (hemodilution with 6% hydroxyethyl starch at a 1:1 ratio) or NS (hemodilution with saline 0.9% at a 3:1 ratio). Hemodilution was performed in animals of groups NS and HES in two stages, with target hematocrits 22% and 15%, achieved at 30-minute intervals. After two hours, 50% of the blood volume withdrawn was transfused and animals were monitored for another hour. Statistical analysis was based on ANOVA for repeated measures followed by multiple comparison test (P<0.05). Pearson's correlations were performed between changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and PPV, central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP). Results. Group NS received a significantly greater amount of fluids during ANH (NS, 900 +/- 168 mL vs. HES, 200 +/- 50 mL, P<0.05) and presented greater urine output (NS, 2643 +/- 1097mL vs. HES, 641 +/- 338mL, P<0.001). Significant decreases in LVEDV were observed in group NS from completion of ANH until transfusion. In group HES, only increases in LVEDV were observed, at the end of ANH and at transfusion. Such changes in LVEDV (Delta LVEDV) were better reflected by changes in PPV (Delta PPV, R=-0.62) than changes in CVP (Delta CVP R=0.32) or in PAOP (Delta PAOP, R=0.42, respectively). Conclusion. Changes in preload during ANH were detected by changes in PPV. Delta PPV was superior to Delta PAOP and Delta CVP to this end. (Minerva Anestesiol 2012;78:426-33)

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Object. Sonothrombolysis has recently been considered an emerging modality for the treatment of stroke. The purpose of the present paper was to review randomized clinical studies concerning the effects of sonothrombolysis associated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on acute ischemic stroke. Methods. Systematic searches for literature published between January 1996 and July 2011 were performed for studies regarding sonothrombolysis combined with tPA for acute ischemic stroke. Only randomized controlled trials were included. Data extraction was based on ultrasound variables, patient characteristics, and outcome variables (rate of intracranial hemorrhages and arterial recanalization). Results. Four trials were included in this study; 2 trials evaluated the effect of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography on sonothrombolysis, and 2 addressed transcranial color-coded duplex (TCCD) ultrasonography. The frequency of ultrasound waves varied from 1.8 to 2 MHz. The duration of thrombus exposure to ultrasound energy ranged from 60 to 120 minutes. Sample sizes were small, recanalization was evaluated at different time points (60 and 120 minutes), and inclusion criteria were heterogeneous. Sonothrombolysis combined with tPA did not lead to an increase in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhagic complications. Two studies demonstrated that patients treated with ultrasound combined with tPA had statistically significant higher rates of recanalization than patients treated with tPA alone. Conclusions. Despite the heterogeneity and the limitations of the reviewed studies, there is evidence that sonothrombolysis associated with tPA is a safe procedure and results in an increased rate of recanalization in the setting of acute ischemic stroke when wave frequencies and energy intensities of diagnostic ultrasound systems are used. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2011.10.FOCUS11251)

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OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea is frequent during the acute phase of stroke, and it is associated with poorer outcomes. A well-established relationship between supine sleep and obstructive sleep apnea severity exists in non-stroke patients. This study investigated the frequency of supine sleep and positional obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: Patients who suffered their first acute stroke, either ischemic or hemorrhagic, were subjected to a full polysomnography, including the continuous monitoring of sleep positions, during the first night after symptom onset. Obstructive sleep apnea severity was measured using the apnea-hypopnea index, and the NIHSS measured stroke severity. RESULTS: We prospectively studied 66 stroke patients. The mean age was 57.6+/-11.5 years, and the mean body mass index was 26.5+/-4.9. Obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index >= 5) was present in 78.8% of patients, and the mean apnea-hypopnea index was 29.7+/-26.6. The majority of subjects (66.7%) spent the entire sleep time in a supine position, and positional obstructive sleep apnea was clearly present in the other 23.1% of cases. A positive correlation was observed between the NIHSS and sleep time in the supine position (r(s) = 0.5; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged supine positioning during sleep was highly frequent after stroke, and it was related to stroke severity. Positional sleep apnea was observed in one quarter of stroke patients, which was likely underestimated during the acute phase of stroke. The adequate positioning of patients during sleep during the acute phase of stroke may decrease obstructive respiratory events, regardless of the stroke subtype.

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The case of a 20 month-old girl that was admitted to the emergency ward because of worsening of her general condition in the setting of acute non-bloody gastroenteritis is reported. The clinical examination revealed signs of severe dehydration and a prominent tender abdomen. Laboratory evaluation showed leucocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein and severe hypochromic microcytic anemia. Abdominal X-ray revealed diffuse meteorism. The child underwent laparascopic evaluation. A perforated Meckel's diverticulum was found. Perforation and anemia due to occult bleeding are unusual presentations of Meckel's diverticulum. The differential diagnosis of children presenting with an acute abdomen with special focus on Meckel's diverticulum is discussed.

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Mechanical thrombectomy using stent retriever devices have been advocated to increase revascularization in intracranial vessel occlusion. We present the results of a large prospective study on the use of the Solitaire Flow Restoration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS Solitaire Flow Restoration Thrombectomy for Acute Revascularization was an international, multicenter, prospective, single-arm study of Solitaire Flow Restoration thrombectomy in patients with large vessel anterior circulation strokes treated within 8 hours of symptom onset. Strict criteria for site selection were applied. The primary end point was the revascularization rate (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction ≥2b) of the occluded vessel as determined by an independent core laboratory. The secondary end point was the rate of good functional outcome (defined as 90-day modified Rankin scale, 0-2). RESULTS A total of 202 patients were enrolled across 14 comprehensive stroke centers in Europe, Canada, and Australia. The median age was 72 years, 60% were female patients. The median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 17. Most proximal intracranial occlusion was the internal carotid artery in 18%, and the middle cerebral artery in 82%. Successful revascularization was achieved in 79.2% of patients. Device and procedure-related severe adverse events were found in 7.4%. Favorable neurological outcome was found in 57.9%. The mortality rate was 6.9%. Any intracranial hemorrhagic transformation was found in 18.8% of patients, 1.5% were symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS In this single-arm study, treatment with the Solitaire Flow Restoration device in intracranial anterior circulation occlusions results in high rates of revascularization, low risk of clinically relevant procedural complications, and good clinical outcomes in combination with low mortality at 90 days. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01327989.

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Abstract BACKGROUND: Pulse pressure variations (PPVs) and stroke volume variations (SVVs) are dynamic indices for predicting fluid responsiveness in intensive care unit patients. These hemodynamic markers underscore Frank-Starling law by which volume expansion increases cardiac output (CO). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the administration of catecholamines on PPV, SVV, and inferior vena cava flow (IVCF). METHODS: In this prospective, physiologic, animal study, hemodynamic parameters were measured in deeply sedated and mechanically ventilated pigs. Systemic hemodynamic and pressure-volume loops obtained by inferior vena cava occlusion were recorded. Measurements were collected during two conditions, that is, normovolemia and hypovolemia, generated by blood removal to obtain a mean arterial pressure value lower than 60 mm Hg. At each condition, CO, IVCF, SVV, and PPV were assessed by catheters and flow meters. Data were compared between the conditions normovolemia and hypovolemia before and after intravenous administrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine using a nonparametric Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: Eight pigs were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and equipped. Both norepinephrine and epinephrine significantly increased IVCF and decreased PPV and SVV, regardless of volemic conditions (p < 0.05). However, epinephrine was also able to significantly increase CO regardless of volemic conditions. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that intravenous administrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine increase IVCF, whatever the volemic conditions are. The concomitant decreases in PPV and SVV corroborate the fact that catecholamine administration recruits unstressed blood volume. In this regard, understanding a decrease in PPV and SVV values, after catecholamine administration, as an obvious indication of a restored volemia could be an outright misinterpretation.

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Lawsonia intracellularis is the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy. The clinical presentation can be acute (i.e. proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy, PHE), chronic (i.e. porcine intestinal adenomatosis, PIA) or subclinical. In humans with chronic enteropathies, low serum folate (vitamin B(9)) and cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) concentrations have been associated with increased serum concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA), which reflect the availability of both vitamins at the cellular level. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and MMA concentrations in serum samples from pigs with PHE, PIA or subclinical L. intracellularis infection, and in negative controls. Serum folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and MMA concentrations differed significantly among pigs in the PHE, PIA, subclinical and negative control groups. Serum folate concentrations in the PHE and PIA groups were lower than in the subclinical and negative control groups, while serum cobalamin concentrations were lower in the PIA group than in other groups. Serum concentrations of homocysteine were higher in the PHE, PIA and subclinical groups than in the negative control group. Serum concentrations of MMA were higher in the subclinical and PIA groups than in the control group. These data suggest that pigs infected with L. intracellularis have altered serum cobalamin, folate, homocysteine and MMA concentrations.

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BACKGROUND Multiple scores have been proposed to stratify bleeding risk, but their value to guide dual antiplatelet therapy duration has never been appraised. We compared the performance of the CRUSADE (Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of the ACC/AHA Guidelines), ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy), and HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal Renal/Liver Function, Stroke, Bleeding History or Predisposition, Labile INR, Elderly, Drugs/Alcohol Concomitantly) scores in 1946 patients recruited in the Prolonging Dual Antiplatelet Treatment After Grading Stent-Induced Intimal Hyperplasia Study (PRODIGY) and assessed hemorrhagic and ischemic events in the 24- and 6-month dual antiplatelet therapy groups. METHODS AND RESULTS Bleeding score performance was assessed with a Cox regression model and C statistics. Discriminative and reclassification power was assessed with net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement. The C statistic was similar between the CRUSADE score (area under the curve 0.71) and ACUITY (area under the curve 0.68), and higher than HAS-BLED (area under the curve 0.63). CRUSADE, but not ACUITY, improved reclassification (net reclassification index 0.39, P=0.005) and discrimination (integrated discrimination improvement index 0.0083, P=0.021) of major bleeding compared with HAS-BLED. Major bleeding and transfusions were higher in the 24- versus 6-month dual antiplatelet therapy groups in patients with a CRUSADE score >40 (hazard ratio for bleeding 2.69, P=0.035; hazard ratio for transfusions 4.65, P=0.009) but not in those with CRUSADE score ≤40 (hazard ratio for bleeding 1.50, P=0.25; hazard ratio for transfusions 1.37, P=0.44), with positive interaction (Pint=0.05 and Pint=0.01, respectively). The number of patients with high CRUSADE scores needed to treat for harm for major bleeding and transfusion were 17 and 15, respectively, with 24-month rather than 6-month dual antiplatelet therapy; corresponding figures in the overall population were 67 and 71, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our analysis suggests that the CRUSADE score predicts major bleeding similarly to ACUITY and better than HAS BLED in an all-comer population with percutaneous coronary intervention and potentially identifies patients at higher risk of hemorrhagic complications when treated with a long-term dual antiplatelet therapy regimen. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00611286.

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Diarrhea is a major public health problem in developing countries among infants and young children. Not all episodes of diarrhea are confirmed as infectious, suggesting alternate mechanisms. One such is immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated or allergic diarrhea that can be seen in food allergy. In order to determine the relation between allergic gastroenteritis and feeding practice, a cohort of 152 infants were followed from birth to one year age in a rural community of Egypt between October, 1987 to April, 1988 were analyzed. In multivariate analysis of the data, statistically conclusive higher risk had been observed with presence of factors, like consumption of milk pudding (RR = 7.4, CI = 1.5-36.2 and p = 0.01), infant's age 3-6 months (RR = 7.7, CI = 1.3-45.9 and p = 0.02), infants whose mothers were vaccinated antenatally (RR = 3.1, CI = 1.3-7.0 and p = 1.3-7.0, p = 0.0) and wet-nursed infants (RR = 2.7, CI = 1.1-6.5 and p = 0.02). In contrast, infants who were completely breast-fed (RR = 0.13, CI = 0.02-0.6 and p = 0.01), and infants family owning a television set (RR = 0.29, CI = 0.1-0.6 and p = 0.0) were less likely to develop allergic gastroenteritis. The role of IgE on development of persistent diarrhea was also examined in a nested case-control design. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant association between detection of fecal IgE and development of persistent diarrhea compared to acute diarrhea (OR = 3.32, CI = 1.0-10.9 and p = 0.04) and health or non diarrhea (OR = 4.8, CI = 1.07-21.7 and p = 0.03) controls. ^

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Abstract Background Immunocompromised individuals with chronic norovirus (NoV) infection and elderly patients are hypothesized to be reservoirs where NoV might accumulate mutations and evolve into pandemic strains. Next generation sequencing (NGS) methods can monitor the intra-host diversity of NoV and its evolution but low abundance of viral RNA results in sub-optimal efficiency. In this study, we: 1) established a next generation sequencing-based method for NoV using bacterial rRNA depletion as a viral RNA enrichment strategy, and 2) measured the intra-host genetic diversity of NoV in specimens of patients with acute NoV infection ( n  = 4) and in longitudinal specimens of an immunocompromised patient with chronic NoV infection ( n  = 2). Results A single Illumina MiSeq dataset resulted in near full-length genome sequences for 5 out of 6 multiplexed samples. Experimental depletion of bacterial rRNA in stool RNA provided up to 1.9 % of NoV reads. The intra-host viral population in patients with acute NoV infection was homogenous and no single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were detected. In contrast, the NoV population from the immunocompromised patient was highly diverse and accumulated SNVs over time (51 SNVs in the first sample and 122 SNVs in the second sample collected 4 months later). The percentages of SNVs causing non-synonymous mutations were 27.5 % and 20.5 % for the first and second samples, respectively. The majority of non-synonymous mutations occurred, in increasing order of frequency, in p22, the major capsid (VP1) and minor capsid (VP2) genes. Conclusions The results provide data useful for the selection and improvement of NoV RNA enrichment strategies for NGS. Whole genome analysis using next generation sequencing confirmed that the within-host population of NoV in an immunocompromised individual with chronic NoV infection was more diverse compared to that in individuals with acute infection. We also observed an accumulation of non-synonymous mutations at the minor capsid gene that has not been reported in previous studies and might have a role in NoV adaptation.

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Abstract Background Vibrio vulnificus , a resident in the human gut, is frequently found in seafood, causing food-borne illnesses including gastroenteritis and severe septicemia. While V. vulnificus has been known to be one of the major food-borne pathogens, pathogenicity and virulence factors are not fully understood yet. To extend our understanding of the pathogenesis of V. vulnificus at the genomic level, the genome of V. vulnificus FORC_017 isolated from a female patient experiencing a hemorrhagic rash was completely sequenced and analyzed. Results Three discontinuous contigs were generated from a hybrid assembly using Illumina MiSeq and PacBio platforms, revealing that the genome of the FORC_017 consists of two circular chromosomes and a plasmid. Chromosome I consists of 3,253,417-bp (GC content 46.49 %) containing 2943 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) and chromosome II of 1,905,745-bp (GC content 46.90 %) containing 1638 ORFs. The plasmid pFORC17 consists of 70,069-bp (GC content 43.77 %) containing 84 ORFs. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) value of the FORC_017 and CMCP6 strains was 98.53, suggesting that they are closely related. Conclusions Pathogenesis-associated genes including vvhA , rtx gene cluster, and various hemolysin genes were present in FORC_017. In addition, three complete secretion systems (Type I, II and VI) as well as iron uptake-related genes for virulence of the FORC_017 were detected, suggesting that this strain is pathogenic. Further comparative genome analysis revealed that FORC_017 and CMCP6 share major toxin genes including vvhA and rtx for pathogenesis activities. The genome information of the FORC_017 provides novel insights into pathogenicity and virulence factors of V. vulnificus .

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Abstract Background Asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic appendicitis are rare and challenging diagnoses that should not be missed. Case presentation A young female patient presented with mild to moderate pain in the middle and lower abdomen, and the results of physical examination, including digital rectal examination, were otherwise non-contributory. Ultrasonography demonstrated a marked increase of the outer appendiceal diameter up to 12 mm and a trace of free liquid around the terminal ileum. Subsequent surgical exploration and histological examination allowed for a final diagnosis of putrid, ulcero-phlegmonous, hemorrhagic appendicitis and periappendicitis. Conclusions Ultrasonography is increasingly used for the diagnosis of appendiceal inflammation, particularly in military medical settings. Increases in the outer appendiceal diameter up to >6 mm under compression have recently been demonstrated to be indicative of acute appendicitis. At a minimum, in cases with doubtful physical examination results, ultrasonography should be considered as an element in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

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Abstract Background Acute diarrhea is a global health problem, resulting in high morbidity and mortality in children. It has been suggested that enteric pathogen co-infections play an important role in gastroenteritis, but most research efforts have only focused on a small range of species belonging to a few pathogen groups. This study aimed to assess the impact of co-infections with a broad range of enteric pathogens on children aged below five years who suffer from acute diarrhea in southwest China. Method A total of 1020 subjects (850 diarrhea cases and 170 healthy controls) were selected from four sentinel hospitals in Kunming, Yunnan province, southwest China, from June 2014 to July 2015. Stool specimens were collected to detect five virus (rotavirus group A, RVA; norovirus, NoV; Sapovirus, SaV; astrovirus, As; and adenovirus, Ad), seven bacterial (diarrheagenic Escherichia coli , DEC; non-typhoidal Salmonella , NTS; Shigella spp.; Vibrio cholera ; Vibrio parahaemolyticus ; Aeromonas spp.; and Plesiomonas spp.), and three protozoan ( Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia , and Blastocystis hominis , B. hominis ) species using standard microbiologic and molecular methods. Data were analyzed using the partial least square regression technique and chi-square test. Results At least one enteric pathogen was detected in 46.7 % ( n  = 397) of acute gastroenteritis cases and 13.5 % ( n  = 23) of healthy controls (χ 2  = 64.4, P  < 0.05). Single infection with RVA was associated with acute diarrhea (26.5 % vs. 5.8 %, P  < 0.05). The prevalence of a single infection with B. hominis in diarrhea cases was higher than in healthy controls (3.1 % vs. 0.5 %, OR  = 4.7, 95 % CI : 1.01–112.0). Single infection with NoV GII was not associated with diarrhea (4.4 % vs. 3.5 %, OR  = 1.2, 95 % CI : 0.5–3.3). Single infections with bacterial species were not observed. The prevalence of co-infections with two enteric pathogens in diarrhea cases was higher than in asymptomatic children (20.1 % vs. 5.3 %, P  < 0.05). RVA-NoV GII was the most common co-infection in symptomatic children (4.4 %), with it aggravating the severity of diarrhea. ...

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Motile Aeromonas are the most common bacteria of freshwater in the world that cause disease in fish and other cold-blooded and warm-blooded hosts. Among this group of bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila is important in causing complications such as fin rot, skin ulcers and lethal hemorrhagic septicemia in fish. Several virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila, including extracellular enzymes (protease, lipase, elastase, gelatinase and nuclease) and toxins. From the exotoxins, hemolysin, aerolysin and cytolytic enterotoxin play an important role in pathogenesis. Detection of virulence markers by PCR as a key component of determining the pathogenesis of the bacteria and using indigenous vaccines for better immunization against this disease is important. In this study, a total of 200 fanned carps (126 common carp. 39 silver carp and 35 of grass carp) with symptoms suspected aeromonas septicemia were isolated from Khouzestan province farms. 125 bacteria belong to Aeromonas genus detected by biochemical and PCR methods. 31 of all isolates recognized as Aeromonas hydrophila with biochemical methods, I6srRNA detection and Lipase genes. Results showed that the role of Aeromonas sp. and Aeromonas hydrophila in fish with disease symptoms were 62.5% and 15.5% respectively. By using specific primers, three virulence genes including hemolysin, aerolysine and cytolytic enterotoxin were detected in these confirmed isolates, that 18 isolates (58/06%) hemolysin positive (hlyA +), 16 isolates (51/61%) aerolysine positive (aerA+) and 23 isolates (74/19%) for cytolytic enterotoxin gene (act+) were positive. The result of present study showed that most of the confirmed isolates genotype was hlyA+ act- with frequency equal to 51/61%. For investigating the protection effect of acut strain of bacteria, UV inactivated bacterin was used.

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Background and Purpose—High blood pressure (BP) is present in 80% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and is independently associated with poor outcome. There are few data examining the relationship between admission BP and acute CT findings. Methods—TAIST was a randomized controlled trial assessing 10 days of treatment with tinzaparin versus aspirin in 1489 patients with acute ischemic stroke (48 hr) with admission BP of 220/120 mm Hg. CT brain scans were performed before randomization and after 10 days. The relationships between baseline BP and adjudicated CT findings were assessed. Odds ratios per 10 mm Hg change in BP were calculated. Results—Higher systolic BP (SBP) was associated with abnormal CT scans because of independent associations with chronic changes of leukoariosis (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.05–1.17) and old infarction (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 –1.17) at baseline, and signs of visible infarction at day 10 (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00 –1.13). A lower SBP was associated with signs of acute infarction (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89–0.99). Hemorrhagic transformation, dense middle cerebral artery sign, mass effect, and cerebral edema at day 10 were not independently associated with baseline BP. Conclusion—Although high baseline BP is independently associated with a poor outcome after stroke, this was not shown to be through an association with increased hemorrhagic transformation, cerebral edema, or mass effect; trial design may be suboptimal to detect this. Higher SBP is associated with visible infarction on day 10 scans. The influence of changing BP in acute stroke on CT findings is still to be ascertained.