998 resultados para Acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis


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Acute hemorrhagic edema of young children is an uncommon but likely underestimated cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The condition typically affects infants 6-24 months of age with a history of recent respiratory illness with or without course of antibiotics. The diagnosis is made in children, mostly nontoxic in appearance, presenting with nonpruritic, large, round, red to purpuric plaques predominantly over the cheeks, ears, and extremities, with relative sparing of the trunk, often with a target-like appearance, and edema of the distal extremities, ears, and face that is mostly non-pitting, indurative, and tender. In boys, the lesions sometimes involve the scrotum and, more rarely, the penis. Fever, typically of low grade, is often present. Involvement of body systems other than skin is uncommon, and spontaneous recovery usually occurs within 6-21 days without sequelae. In this condition, laboratory tests are non-contributory: total blood cell count is often normal, although leukocytosis and thrombocytosis are sometimes found, clotting studies are normal, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein test are normal or slightly elevated, complement level is normal, autoantibodies are absent, and urinalysis is usually normal. Experienced physicians rapidly consider the possible diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic edema when presented with a nontoxic young child having large targetoid purpuric lesions and indurative swelling, which is non-pitting in character, and make the diagnosis either on the basis of clinical findings alone or supported by a skin biopsy study.

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BACKGROUND: Acute hemorrhagic edema is an uncommon leukocytoclastic small-vessel vasculitis of young children. OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical features and outcome of acute hemorrhagic edema of young children. METHODS: Seven new cases are reported. A search of the literature revealed 287 published cases. RESULTS: The 294 children (boys, 67%) ranged in age between 2 and 60 months (median, 11 months) and were in good general condition. In 195 children the disease developed after a simple acute infection. The exanthemata included large, round, red to purpuric plaques predominantly over the cheeks, ears, and extremities and mostly tender edema of the distal extremities, ears, and face. Involvement of body systems other than skin was rare. The children recovered spontaneously without sequelae. LIMITATIONS: Results of this review must be viewed with an understanding of the limitations of the analysis process, which incorporated data exclusively from single case reports or case series. CONCLUSIONS: Acute hemorrhagic edema of young children is a very benign vasculitis. Physicians might rapidly develop the skills necessary to diagnose this condition.

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BACKGROUND: Volume resuscitation is one of the primary therapeutic goals in hemorrhagic shock, but data on microcirculatory effects of different colloidal fluid resuscitation regimen are sparse. We investigated sublingual mucosal microcirculatory parameters during hemorrhage and after fluid resuscitation with gelatin, hydroxyethyl starch, or hypertonic saline and hydroxyethyl starch in pigs. METHODS: To induce hemorrhagic shock, 60% of calculated blood volume was withdrawn. Microvascular blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler velocimetry. Microcirculatory hemoglobin oxygen saturation was measured with a tissue reflectance spectrophotometry, and side darkfield imaging was used to visualize the microcirculation and to quantify the flow quality. Systemic hemodynamic variables, systemic acid base and blood gas variables, and lactate measurements were recorded. Measurements were performed at baseline, after hemorrhage, and after fluid resuscitation with a fixed volume regimen. RESULTS: Systemic hemodynamic parameters returned or even exceeded to baseline values in all three groups after fluid resuscitation, but showed significantly higher filling pressures and cardiac output values in animals treated with isotonic colloids. Microcirculatory parameters determined in gelatin and hydroxyethyl starch resuscitated animals, and almost all parameters except microvascular hemoglobin oxygen saturation in animals treated with hypertonic saline and hydroxyethyl starch, were restored after treatment. DISCUSSION: Hemorrhaged pigs can be hemodynamically stabilized with either isotonic or hypertonic colloidal fluids. The main finding is an adequate restoration of sublingual microcirculatory blood flow and flow quality in all three study groups, but only gelatin and hydroxyethyl starch improved microvascular hemoglobin oxygen saturation, indicating some inadequate oxygen supply/demand ratio maybe due to a better restoration of systemic hemodynamics in isotonic colloidal resuscitated animals.

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The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different fluid types for resuscitation after experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock in anesthetized chickens and to evaluate partial pressures of carbon dioxide measured in arterial blood (Paco2), with a transcutaneous monitor (TcPco2), with a gastric intraluminal monitor (GiPco2), and by end tidal measurements (Etco2) under stable conditions and after induced hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in 40 white leghorn chickens by removing 50% of blood volume by phlebotomy under general anesthesia. Birds were divided into 4 groups: untreated (control group) and treated with intravenous hetastarch (haes group), with a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemospan group), or by autotransfusion (blood group). Respiratory rates, heart rates, and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) were compared at 8 time points (baseline [T0]; at the loss of 10% [T10%], 20% [T20%], 30% [T30%], 40% [T40%], and 50% [T50%] of blood volume; at the end of resuscitation [RES]; and at the end of anesthesia [END]). Packed cell volume (PCV) and blood hemoglobin content were compared at 6 time points (T0, T50%, RES, and 1, 3, and 7 days after induced hemorrhagic shock). Measurements of Paco2, TcPco2, GiPco2, and Etco2 were evaluated at 2 time points (T0 and T50%), and venous lactic acid concentrations were evaluated at 3 time points (T0, T50%, and END). No significant differences were found in mortality, respiratory rate, heart rate, PCV, or hemoglobin values among the 4 groups. Birds given fluid resuscitation had significantly higher SAPs after fluid administration than did birds in the control group. In all groups, PCV and hemoglobin concentrations began to rise by day 3 after phlebotomy, and baseline values were reached 7 days after blood removal. At T0, TcPco2 did not differ significantly from Paco2, but GiPco2 and Etco2 differed significantly from Paco2. After hemorrhagic shock, GiPco2 and TcPco2 differed significantly from Paco2. The TcPco2 or GiPco2 values did not differ significantly at any time point in birds that survived or died in any of the groups and across all groups. These results showed no difference in mortality in leghorn chickens treated with fluid resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock and that the PCV and hemoglobin concentrations increased by 3 days after acute hemorrhage with or without treatment. The different CO2 measurements document changes in CO2-values consistent with poor perfusion and may prove useful for serial evaluation of responses to shock and shock treatment.

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Acute hemorrhagic edema of young children is a rare leukocytoclastic vasculitis that has been reported exclusively in small retrospective cases series, case reports, or quizzes. Considering that retrospective experience deserves confirmation in at least one observational prospective study, we present our experience with 16 children (12 boys and 4 girls, 5-28 months of age) affected by acute hemorrhagic edema. The patients were in good general conditions and with a low-grade or even absent fever. They presented with non-itching red to purpuric targetoid lesions not changing location within hours, with non-pitting and sometimes tender indurative swelling, and without mucous membrane involvement or scratch marks. Signs for articular, abdominal, or kidney involvement were absent. Antinuclear or antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies were never detected. The cases were managed symptomatically as outpatients and fully resolved within 4 weeks or less. No recurrence or familiarity was noted. CONCLUSION This is the first prospective evaluation of hemorrhagic edema. Our findings emphasize its distinctive tetrad: a well-appearing child; targetoid lesions that do not change location within hours; non-pitting, sometimes tender edema; complete resolution without recurrence. What is known • Acute hemorrhagic edema of young children is considered a benign vasculitis. • There have been ≈100 cases reported in small retrospective case series. What is new • The first prospective evaluation of this condition emphasizes its features: febrile prodrome; well-appearing child; targetoid lesions not changing location within hours; non-pitting, sometimes tender indurative edema; absent extracutaneous involvement; resolution within 3 weeks. • Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies do not play a pathogenic role.

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Malaria is a pathology caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, characteristic of tropical countries. The most frequent symptomatology includes cerebral malaria, jaundice, convulsive crisis, anemia, hypoglycemia, kidney failure and metabolic acidosis, among others. We are presenting the case of a patient diagnosed with malaria who suffered from acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis and evolved poorly, as an example of this combination of symptoms, rarely found in our country.

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To report the occurrence of acute hemorrhagic retinopathy following intravitreal melphalan injection for retinoblastoma. This is a retrospective case series of 2 patients with retinoblastoma treated with intravitreal melphalan for vitreous seeding who developed acute hemorrhagic retinopathy. Patient 1 is a 6-month-old female with bilateral retinoblastoma (Group D right eye and Group B left eye) treated with 4 cycles of systemic chemotherapy and 2 intravitreal melphalan injections in each eye. Patient 2 is a 10-month-old male with unilateral Group D retinoblastoma treated with 6 cycles of systemic chemotherapy and 2 injections of intravitreal melphalan. At the 1-week follow-up after the second injection, both patients had an acute hemorrhagic retinopathy that resulted in chorioretinal toxicity with a sharp demarcation line between the normal and abnormal retina. At the last follow-up (22 and 12 months, respectively), there was total tumor control and resolution of vitreous seeding in both patients. Although intravitreal melphalan injection is effective for vitreous seeding in eyes with retinoblastoma, acute hemorrhagic retinopathy and diffuse chorioretinal atrophy is a possible complication of this treatment modality. Given the clinical findings observed in these patients, the development of this retinal toxicity most likely results from a retrohyaloid overdose. Consequently we suggest preventive measures aimed at limiting the risk of retrohyaloid injection.

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To compare the efficacy of a low-lactose hy-drolyzed milk formula, a lactose-free corn syrup-based milk formula, and a standard lactose-containing formula during refeeding after rehydration in infants with gastroenteritis, 135 patients older than 2 years were studied by randomized trial. Clearly demonstrated disadvantages in terms of early weight loss and longer duration of diarrhea were observed with the lactose-based formula compared with early weight gains on both the low-lactose formulae, and thus the lactose-containing formula was discontinued after 91 patients. The early weight loss with the lactose-containing formula was statistically significantly related to the degree of relative (rehydrated) underweight. The two low-lactose formulae were further compared in the remaining 44 patients. Early weight gain (48 h) was sig-nificantly greater with the lactose-hydrolyzed formula compared with the corn syrup-based formula, but no statistically significant differences were observed in duration of diarrhea, energy intake, treatment failures, or late weight gain. We conclude that the routine use of a low-lactose formula during refeeding after rehydration in infants with gastroenteritis may have some advantages in underweight infants and toddlers in whom it is important to prevent further weight loss. © 1994 Raven Press Ltd, New York.

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Rotavirus is the most common etiological cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, yet its role in the adult population is less well understood. We have recently identified rotavirus as the causative agent of severe diarrhea in adults, specifically in two gastroenteritis outbreaks in separate care for the elderly homes. Strain typing has shown the continued presence of P[8]G1, the emergence of P[8]G9, and the reemergence of P[8]G4. A total of 26 community cases and 6 outbreak cases of rotavirus infection, positive via a molecular screening assay, were subsequently amplified using VP4 and VP7 specific primers (Con2/Con3 and 1A/1B primer sets, respectively). The age range of patients investigated was from

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Norovirus infection is the leading cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Histoblood group antigens (HBGAs) are host susceptibility determinants for Norwalk virus (NV) infection. We hypothesized that antibodies that block NV-HBGA binding are associated with protection from clinical illness following NV exposure.

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A paracoccidioidomicose é enfermidade potencialmente grave podendo levar ao óbito. Lesões cutâneas específicas são freqüentes e propícias ao diagnóstico precoce. A disseminação para órgãos do sistema monocítico-macrofágico corresponde à forma aguda-subaguda da enfermidade. Derrame pleural e ascite, raros na paracoccidioidomicose, no presente caso foram conseqüentes à pancreatite aguda hemorrágica. Nos casos graves a anfotericina B e o suporte hospitalar adequado são decisivos na recuperação.

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No presente estudo, ajustou-se um modelo de regressão logística para prever a probabilidade de óbito de cães acometidos por gastroenterite hemorrágica. O modelo Logístico é recomendado para variáveis-resposta dicotômicas em estudo de Coorte. Registraram-se 176 animais censitariamente atendidos com gastroenterite hemorrágica em quatro clínicas veterinárias da cidade de Lavras, sul de Minas Gerais, entre os anos de 1992 e 1999. Após terem sido selecionadas por meio do teste de Pearson ou teste exato de Fisher, ajustou-se o modelo considerando-se as variáveis sexo, idade, diárias de internação e número de atendimentos. A estimação dos parâmetros foi feita pelo método da máxima verossimilhança. Conclui-se que quando os cães acometidos por gastroenterite hemorrágica são atendidos apenas uma vez, aqueles com idade superior a 6 meses possuem 15,45 vezes mais chances de morrerem (P<0,05) do que aqueles com menos de 6 meses de idade. Quando os animais que apresentam a enfermidade possuem mais de 6 meses de idade, a chance de morrerem, se forem atendidos apenas uma vez, é 20,251 vezes maior (P<0,05) do que se recebessem de 2 a 7 atendimentos.

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Os rotavírus (RVs) são a principal causa de gastrenterites viróticas agudas tanto em seres humanos, como em animais jovens de várias espécies, incluindo bezerros, equinos, suínos, caninos, felinos e aves. A diversidade genética dos RVs está associada a diferentes mecanismos de evolução. Nesse contexto registrem-se: mutação pontual, rearranjo genômico e reestruturação (reassortment). O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar a caracterização molecular dos genes que codificam para as proteínas estruturais e não-estruturais em amostras não usuais de RVs. Os espécimes clínicos selecionados para este estudo foram oriundos de projetos de pesquisa em gastrenterites virais conduzidos no Instituto Evandro Chagas e provenientes de crianças e neonato com gastrenterite por RVs. Os espécimes fecais foram submetidos à reação em cadeia mediada pela polimerase, para os genes estruturais (VP1-VP4, VP6 e VP7) e não estruturais (NSP1-NSP6), os quais foram sequenciados posteriormente. Oito amostras não usuais de RV oriundas de crianças e neonato com gastrenterite foram analisadas evidenciando a ocorrência de eventos de rearranjos entre genes provenientes de origem animal em 5/8 (62,5%) das amostras analisadas. Desta forma, o presente estudo demonstra que apesar de ser rara a transmissão de RVs entre espécies (animais – humanos), ela está ocorrendo na natureza, como o que possivelmente ocorreu nas amostras do presente estudo NB150, HSP034, HSP180, HST327 e RV10109. O estudo é pioneiro na região amazônica e reforça dados descritos anteriormente que demonstram o estreito relacionamento existente entre genes provenientes de origem humana e animal que possam representar um desafio às vacinas ora em uso introduzidas em escala progressiva nos programas nacionais de imunização.