3 resultados para genotypes
em Bioline International
In Tunisia, broomrape ( Orobanche foetida Poir.) causes major drawbacks especially in faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) Chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) suffers little damage compared to faba bean, but with the winter sowing chickpea cultivars, broomrape might become a serious problem for chickpea cultivation. The development of resistant cultivars remains the most efficient way to solve this problem. The behavior of six chickpea genotypes to O. foetida was studied under field natural infestation and artificial inoculation in pots and petri dishes in greenhouse conditions. During the cropping seasons 2010-2011 and 2012-2013 the level of infection was very low. The number of emerged parasites per host plant varied from 0.18 to 0.43 and the incidence from 6.5% to 23%. Among the six tested genotypes, G1, G2, and G4 showed partial resistance to O. foetida with low number and dry weight of emerged parasite and high grain yield compared to the other genotypes, although no significant differences were recorded. In pot experiments, the number and total dry weight of broomrape per plant were lower for G1 and G2 genotypes than the other genotypes. Parasitism does not affect significantly the shoot dry weight and number of pods of these genotypes. The total chlorophyll content was significantly reduced under infestation in all genotypes. In Petri dishes experiments, results showed that percent germination of O. foetida seeds varied from 49% to 65% and does not play a role in the resistance of chickpea genotypes. In contrast, broomrape attachment was lower and slower for the genotypes G1, G2, and G4 than the other genotypes. Resistance in chickpea genotypes was characterized by few parasite attachments on roots and a limited growth of established tubercles. No necrosis of attached tubercles was observed in the different experiments.
Mungbean ( Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) is an important source of nutrients and income for smallholder farmers in East Africa. Mungbean production in countries like Uganda largely depends on landraces, in the absence of improved varieties. In order to enhance productivity, efforts have been underway to develop and evaluate mungbean varieties that meet farmers’ needs in various parts of the country. This study was conducted at six locations in Uganda, to determine the adaptability of introduced mungbean genotypes, and identify mungbean production mega-environments in Uganda. Eleven genotypes (Filsan, Sunshine, Blackgram, Mauritius1, VC6148 (50-12), VC6173 (B-10),Yellowmungo, KPS1, VC6137(B-14),VC6372(45-60),VC6153(B-20P) and one local check were evaluated in six locations during 2013 and 2014. The locations were; National Semi Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSARRI), Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (AbiZARDI),Kaberamaido variety trial center, Kumi variety trial center, Nabuin Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (NabuinZARDI), and Ngetta Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (NgettaZARDI). G × E interactions were significant for grain yield. Through GGEBiplot analysis, three introduced genotypes (Filsan, Blackgram and Sunshine) were found to be stable and high yielding, and therefore, were recommended for release. The six test multi-locations were grouped into two candidate mega-environments for mungbean production (one comprising of AbiZARDI and Kaberamaido and the other comprising of NaSARRI, NabuinZARDI, Kumi, and NgettaZARDI). National Semi Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSARRI) was the most suitable environment in terms of both discriminative ability and representativeness and therefore can be used for selection of widely adaptable genotypes.
Coagulase-negative staphylococci, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis , can be regarded as potential reservoirs of resistance genes for pathogenic strains, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus . The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of different resistance phenotypes to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramins B (MLSB) antibiotics among erythromycin-resistant S. epidermidis, together with the evaluation of genes promoting the following different types of MLSB resistance: ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, mphC, and linA/A’. Susceptibility to spiramycin was also examined. Among 75 erythromycin-resistant S. epidermidis isolates, the most frequent phenotypes were macrolides and streptogramins B (MSB) and constitutive MLSB (cMLSB). Moreover, all strains with the cMLSB phenotype and the majority of inducible MLSB (iMLSB) isolates were resistant to spiramycin, whereas strains with the MSB phenotype were sensitive to this antibiotic. The D-shape zone of inhibition around the clindamycin disc near the spiramycin disc was found for some spiramycin-resistant strains with the iMLSB phenotype, suggesting an induction of resistance to clindamycin by this 16-membered macrolide. The most frequently isolated gene was ermC, irrespective of the MLSB resistance phenotype, whereas the most often noted gene combination was ermC, mphC, linA/A’. The results obtained showed that the genes responsible for different mechanisms of MLSB resistance in S. epidermidis generally coexist, often without the phenotypic expression of each of them.