5 resultados para genotypes

em Advances in Agricultural Science


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Some selected engineering properties (geometrical, volumetrical, colour and mechanical) properties of seven genotypes in quinoa seeds were determined and compared in this study. Che. quinoa (red) genotype had the lowest geometric mean diameter and surface area, whereas Che. quinoa (black) genotype had the highest values among 7 quinoa genotypes, for these properties. The bulk density, true density, and porosity of quinoa genotypes were determined between 713.6 and 824.4 kg/m3, 766.9 and 911.4 kg/m3, 6.95 and 15.03% respectively. Che. quinoa (Q11) genotype had the lowest bulk and true densities, whereas Che. quinoa (Ames) genotype had the highest bulk and true density values among quinoa genotypes. The sphericity and seed volume values of Che. quinoa (black) genotype observed in quinoa genotypes were lower than the other quinoa genotypes. The lowest hue angle and chroma colour characteristics values were found as 33.61 and 8.41 in Che. quinoa (black) genotype among quinoa genotypes, respectively. The static friction coefficient and the angle of repose in quinoa genotypes were determined between 0.477 and 0.955, 14.09 and 23.57° respectively.  The lowest rupture force and hardness were found in Che. quinoa (black) genotype, whereas, the highest rupture force and rupture energy were found in Che. quinoa (PI) genotype among quinoa genotypes. The study provides an opportunity that some engineering properties (including physical and mechanical properties in the quinoa seeds of seven genotypes may be useful in designing of the related equipment for postharvest handling and processing operations (harvesting, separating, processing, packing, and transportation).  

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This study was carried out to determine the physico-mechanical (geometric, volumetric, fricitional, fruit removal force, compression force and puncture force), colour and chemical properties (titratable acidity, soluble solid content and pH) of three cherry laurel genotypes (54 K 01, 55 K 07 and 61 K 04)  cultivated in Turkey. The geometric properties such as geometric mean diameter and sphericity were found in the range of 13.3 to 17.4 for fruit, 8.3 to 9.6 mm for fruits pit and 6.1 to 6.9 mm for kernel of cherry laurel 54 K 01, 55 K 07 and 61 K 04 genotypes, respectively. 54 K 01 cherry laurel genotye had the highest volumetric properties such as bulk densit and true density for fruits, whereas, 55 K 07 genotype for stone had the least values among these three cherry laurel genotypes for these properties. 54 K 01 genotype had the highest colour values for L*, a*, and b* of fruits as 24.1, 16.2, 2.4 and its stone as 40.8, 11.2, 14.3 among three cherry laurel genotypes, 54 K 01 had the lowest L*, a*and b* values for kernel of cherry laurel fruits as 42.0, 7.7 and 12.9, respectively. The fruit removal force ranged from 0.38 to 0.59 N, whereas, the puncture force for X-, Y-, Z- axes from 0.39 to 0.75 N; from 0.37 to 0.65 N, from 0.39 to 0.55 N, among three cherry laurel genotypes, respectively. The static friction coefficient of cherry laurel fruit, its stone and kernels changed from 0.29 to 0.72 (fruit), 0.41 to 0.93 (stone), from 0.34 to 0.60 (kernel), respectively. The coefficient of friction of cherry laurel fruit, its stone and kernels were largely influenced by the friction surfaces studied, and highest values were found genotypes.  It is important to determine physico-mechanical (geometric, volumetric, frictional, fruit removal force, puncture) and rupture force, colour and chemical properties of particular fruit, its stone and kernels for selected cherry laurel genotypes which may increase fruit quality, economic value for harvest and post harvest technologies. Therefore, these properties should be considered.  

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Rhizobia inoculants are soil bacteria that promote biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Understanding of rhizobia-host genotype association is a critical step in enhancing legume productivity. Questionnaires were used to identify the common bean varieties cultivated in Eastern Kenya. The native rhizobia were isolated from the root nodules of MAC 13 and MAC 64 bean varieties. Afterwards, a greenhouse bioassay with four inoculation treatments using sterilized soil; 1) mixture of isolated strains, 2) commercial exotic inoculant (Biofix), 3) mixture of isolated strain + commercial inoculant, 4) control without inoculation were set up in a complete randomized design with three replications. Four weeks later, beans were sampled and examined for nodule number (NNO), nodule dry weight (NDW), shoot dry weight (SDW), root dry weight (RDW), shoot nitrogen (%N) and phosphorus (P). Results demonstrated that highest and significant (p<0.05) NDW, SDW and shoot %N content were achieved in a mix of native consortium+ commercial rhizobia, while the highest and significant (p<0.05) P content was realized in a consortium of native rhizobia inoculation. Moreover, there was a significant interaction (p<0.05) between  rhizobia and bean varieties with Kabuu recording the highest NDW, SDW, %N and P contents in a mix of native consortium+ commercial exotic rhizobia. Gacere recorded the highest NDW and SDW when inoculated with commercial rhizobia. Native rhizobia inoculation recorded the highest shoot %N variability in all bean varieties when compared to commercial and a mixture of native+ commercial rhizobia. These results show the mutual preference that exists between rhizobia and bean varieties and the multistrain synergism between native and commercial exotic rhizobia. Further studies should explicate the performance of diverse native rhizobia inoculants used in this study under field conditions.  

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  A sole inorganic fertilizer application study was done in southern Mali in Sikasso during the rainy season 2016-2017 to assess its effect on cassava growth and yields parameters. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) experiment with three replicates in two sites was used. The inorganic fertilizer used was the NPK (15-15-15) at 4 rates (0kg ha-1, 100kg ha-1, 200kg ha-1 and 300kg ha-1). Two cassava genotypes, Bonima (local) and Sika (from Ghana) were used in Finkolo and Loulouni. The fertilizer rates were applied in splits at equal quantity, two weeks after planting and the rest two months later. Analysis of soil nutrients before planting and plant leaves N, P and K content were performed. Data on numbers of branches, number of tubers per plant and fresh tuber yield were collected. The Least Significant Difference (LSD) at p=0.05 served to separate means. Our findings showed that Sika genotype and 300 kg ha-1 of NPK are the best genotype and NPK (15-15-15) rates respectively in the two study sites. For the N, P and K content in the cassava leaves, the fertilizer effect was significant on P at 5 percent; while the N and K uptake were found to be affected by the site effect. Therefore site conditions should be considered when growing cassava. The Application of 300 kg ha-1 of NPK increases cassava production allowing smallholder farmer‘s a progress for food security and higher profit. The results will inform and brief policies makers on cassava production in the country.  

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The present study aimed to investigate the different responses of sensitive and tolerant rice genotypes under water stress conditions induced by using poly ethylene glycol (PEG 6000). The studied genotypes were Giza177, Giza181, Giza182 and Sakha103 (sensitive), Sakha104 (moderate) and Orabi2 (tolerant). The present investigation included the determination of germination %, fresh and dry weight, shoot and root length, cell membranes stability as rate of electrolyte leakage (EL) and lipid peroxidation as MDA content. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (sqRT-PCR) for some protective proteins such as heat stable proteins (HSPs) and dehydrins (DHNs) standardized on actin transcript amounts were carried out to investigate the changes in the expression pattern of those genes. All determinations were carried out for all studied genotypes under both control and drought conditions. The obtained results revealed that water stress tolerance of tolerant genotypes was accompanied with decreasing of electrolyte leakage rate and low content of MDA comparing with sensitive ones. sqRT-PCR analysis for expression pattern of studied genes showed increasing in the expression of HSP-13, HSP-12, HSP-9 and DHN-2 in the seedlings of tolerant genotypes comparing with sensitive ones. The present study pointed to the participation of those genes in the acquisition of drought tolerance in tolerant genotypes.