12 resultados para PSORIASIS

em Aston University Research Archive


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Healthcare providers and policy makers are faced with an ever-increasing number of medical publications. Searching for relevant information and keeping up to date with new research findings remains a constant challenge. It has been widely acknowledged that narrative reviews of the literature are susceptible to several types of bias and a systematic approach may protect against these biases. The aim of this thesis was to apply quantitative methods in the assessment of outcomes of topical therapies for psoriasis. In particular, to systematically examine the comparative efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of topical calcipotriol in the treatment of mild-to-moderate psoriasis. Over the years, a wide range of techniques have been used to evaluate the severity of psoriasis and the outcomes from treatment. This lack of standardisation complicates the direct comparison of results and ultimately the pooling of outcomes from different clinical trials. There is a clear requirement for more comprehensive tools for measuring drug efficacy and disease severity in psoriasis. Ideally, the outcome measures need to be simple, relevant, practical, and widely applicable, and the instruments should be reliable, valid and responsive. The results of the meta-analysis reported herein show that calcipotriol is an effective antipsoriatic agent. In the short-tenn, the pooled data found calcipotriol to be more effective than calcitriol, tacalcitol, coal tar and short-contact dithranol. Only potent corticosteroids appeared to have comparable efficacy, with less short-term side-effects. Potent corticosteroids also added to the antipsoriatic effect of calcipotriol, and appeared to suppress the occurrence of calcipotriol-induced irritation. There was insufficient evidence to support any large effects in favour of improvements in efficacy when calcipotriol is used in combination with systemic therapies in patients with severe psoriasis. However, there was a total absence of long-term morbidity data on the effectiveness of any of the interventions studied. Decision analysis showed that, from the perspective of the NHS as payer, the relatively small differences in efficacy between calcipotriol and short-contact dithranol lead to large differences in the direct cost of treating patients with mildto-moderate plaque psoriasis. Further research is needed to examine the clinical and economic issues affecting patients under treatment for psoriasis in the UK. In particular, the maintenance value and cost/benefit ratio for the various treatment strategies, and the assessment of patient's preferences has not yet been adequately addressed for this chronic recurring disease.

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Psoriasis is characterised by epidermal proliferation and inflammation resulting in the appearance of elevated erythematous plaques. The ratio of c~AMP/c~GMP is decreased in psoriatic skin and when the epidermal cell surface receptors are stimulated by β-adrenergic agonists, intracellular ATP is transformed into c-AMP, thus restoring the c~AMP/c~GMP levels. This thesis describes a series of β-adrenoceptor agonists for topical delivery based upon the soft-drug approach. Soft drugs are defined as biologically active, therapeutically useful chemical compounds (drugs) characterised by a predictable and controllable In vivo destruction (metabolism) to non-toxic moieties. after they achieve their therapeutic role, The N-substituent can accommodate a broad range of structures and here the alkoxycarbonylethyl group has been used to provide metabolic susceptability. The increased polarity of the dihydroxy acid, expected after metabolic conversion of the soft~drug, ethyl N-[2'-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-2'-hydroxyethyl]-3- aminopropionate, should eliminate agonist activity. Further. to prevent oxidation and enhance topical delivery, the catechol hydroxyl groups have been esterified to produce a pro-soft-drug which generates the soft-drug in enzymic systems. The chemical hydrolysis of the pro-soft-drug proceeded via the formation of the dlpivaloyloxy acid and it failed to generate the active dihydroxy ester soft-drug. In contrast, in the presence of porcine liver carboxyesterase, the hydrolysis of the pro-soft drug proceeded via the formation of the required active soft-drug. This compound, thus, has the appropnate kinetic features to enable it to be evaluated further as a drug for the treatment of psoriasis. The pH rate-profile for the hydrolysis of soft-drug indicated a maximum stability at pH ∼ 4.0. The individual rate constants for the degradation and the pKa were analysed by nonlinear regression. The pKa of 7.40 is in excellent agreement with that determined by direct titration (7.43) and indicates that satisfactory convergence was achieved. The soft-drug was poorly transported across a silicone membrane; it was also air-sensitive due to oxidation of the catechol group. The transport of the pro-soft-drug was more efficient and, over the donor pH range 3-8, increased with pH. At lower values, the largely protonated species was not transported. However, above pH 7. chemical degradation was rapid so that a donor pH of 5-6 was optimum. The β-adrenergic agonist activity of these compounds was tested in vitro by measuring chronotropic and inotropic responses in the guinea pig atria and relaxation of guinea pig trachea precontracted with acetylcholine (10-3 M). The soft~drug was a full agonist on the tracheal preparation but was less potent than isoprenaline. Responses of the soft~drug were competitively antagonised by propranolol (10-6 M). The soft~drug produced an increase in force and rate of the isolated atrial preparatIon. The propyl analogue was equally potent with ED50 of 6.52 x 10-7 M. In contrast, at equivalent doses, the dihydroxy acid showed no activity; only a marginal effect was observed on the tracheal preparation. For the pro~soft-drug, responses were of slow onset, in both preparations, with a slowly developing relaxatlon of the tracheal preparatlon at high concentrations (10-5 M). This is consistent with in vitro results where the dipivaloyl groups are hydrolysed more readily than the ethyl ester to gIve the active soft-drug. These results confirm the validity tif the pro-soft-drug approach to the deUvery of β-adrenoceptor agonists.

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Azidoprofen {2-(4-azidophenyl)propionic acid; AZP}, an azido-substituted arylalkanoic acid, was investigated as a model soft drug candidate for a potential topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA). Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed for the assay of AZP, a series of ester analogues and their· degradation products. 1H-NMR spectroscopy was also employed as an analytical method in selected cases. Reduction of the azido-group to the corresponding amine has been proposed as a potential detoxification mechanism for compounds bearing this substituent. An in vitro assay to measure the susceptibility of azides towards reduction was developed using dithiothreitol as a model reducing agent. The rate of reduction of AZP was found to be base-dependent, hence supporting the postulated mechanism of thiol-mediated reduction via nucleophilic attack by the thiolate anion. Prodrugs may enhance topical bioavailability through the manipulation of physico-chemical properties of the parent drug. A series of ester derivatives of AZP were investigated for their susceptibility to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis, which regenerates the parent acid. Use of alcoholic cosolvents with differing alkyl functions to that of the ester resulted in transesterification reactions, which were found to be enzyme-mediated. The skin penetration of AZP was assessed using an in vitro hairless mouse skin model, and silastic membrane in some cases. The rate of permeation of AZP was found to be a similar magnitude to that of the well established NSAIA ibuprofen. Penetration rates were dependent on the vehicle pH and drug concentration when solutions were employed. In contrast, flux was independent of pH when suspension formulations were used. Pretreatment of the skin with various enhancer regimes, including oleic acid and azone in propylene glycol, promoted the penetration of AZP. An intense IR absorption due to the azide group serves as a highly diagnostic marker, enabling azido compounds to be detected in the outer layers of the· stratum corneum following their application to skin, using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). This novel application enabled a non-invasive examination of the percutaneous penetration enhancement of a model azido compound in vivo in man, in the presence of the enhancer oleic acid.

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DUE TO COPYRIGHT RESTRICTIONS ONLY AVAILABLE FOR CONSULTATION AT ASTON UNIVERSITY LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES WITH PRIOR ARRANGEMENT

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Healthcare providers and policy makers are faced with an ever-increasing number of medical publications. Searching for relevant information and keeping up to date with new research findings remains a constant challenge. It has been widely acknowledged that narrative reviews of the literature are susceptible to several types of bias and a systematic approach may protect against these biases. The aim of this thesis was to apply quantitative methods in the assessment of outcomes of topical therapies for psoriasis. In particular, to systematically examine the comparative efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of topical calcipotriol in the treatment of mild-to-moderate psoriasis. Over the years, a wide range of techniques have been used to evaluate the severity of psoriasis and the outcomes from treatment. This lack of standardisation complicates the direct comparison of results and ultimately the pooling of outcomes from different clinical trials. There is a clear requirement for more comprehensive tools for measuring drug efficacy and disease severity in psoriasis. Ideally, the outcome measures need to be simple, relevant, practical, and widely applicable, and the instruments should be reliable, valid and responsive. The results of the meta-analysis reported herein show that calcipotriol is an effective antipsoriatic agent. In the short-tenn, the pooled data found calcipotriol to be more effective than calcitriol, tacalcitol, coal tar and short-contact dithranol. Only potent corticosteroids appeared to have comparable efficacy, with less short-term side-effects. Potent corticosteroids also added to the antipsoriatic effect of calcipotriol, and appeared to suppress the occurrence of calcipotriol-induced irritation. There was insufficient evidence to support any large effects in favour of improvements in efficacy when calcipotriol is used in combination with systemic therapies in patients with severe psoriasis. However, there was a total absence of long-term morbidity data on the effectiveness of any of the interventions studied. Decision analysis showed that, from the perspective of the NHS as payer, the relatively small differences in efficacy between calcipotriol and short-contact dithranol lead to large differences in the direct cost of treating patients with mildto-moderate plaque psoriasis. Further research is needed to examine the clinical and economic issues affecting patients under treatment for psoriasis in the UK. In particular, the maintenance value and cost/benefit ratio for the various treatment strategies, and the assessment of patient's preferences has not yet been adequately addressed for this chronic recurring disease.

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Psoriasis is characterised by epidermal proliferation and inflammation resulting in the appearance of elevated erythematous plaques. The ratio of c~AMP/c~GMP is decreased in psoriatic skin and when the epidermal cell surface receptors are stimulated by β-adrenergic agonists, intracellular ATP is transformed into c-AMP, thus restoring the c~AMP/c~GMP levels. This thesis describes a series of β-adrenoceptor agonists for topical delivery based upon the soft-drug approach. Soft drugs are defined as biologically active, therapeutically useful chemical compounds (drugs) characterised by a predictable and controllable In vivo destruction (metabolism) to non-toxic moieties. after they achieve their therapeutic role, The N-substituent can accommodate a broad range of structures and here the alkoxycarbonylethyl group has been used to provide metabolic susceptability. The increased polarity of the dihydroxy acid, expected after metabolic conversion of the soft~drug, ethyl N-[2'-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-2'-hydroxyethyl]-3- aminopropionate, should eliminate agonist activity. Further. to prevent oxidation and enhance topical delivery, the catechol hydroxyl groups have been esterified to produce a pro-soft-drug which generates the soft-drug in enzymic systems. The chemical hydrolysis of the pro-soft-drug proceeded via the formation of the dlpivaloyloxy acid and it failed to generate the active dihydroxy ester soft-drug. In contrast, in the presence of porcine liver carboxyesterase, the hydrolysis of the pro-soft drug proceeded via the formation of the required active soft-drug. This compound, thus, has the appropnate kinetic features to enable it to be evaluated further as a drug for the treatment of psoriasis. The pH rate-profile for the hydrolysis of soft-drug indicated a maximum stability at pH ∼ 4.0. The individual rate constants for the degradation and the pKa were analysed by nonlinear regression. The pKa of 7.40 is in excellent agreement with that determined by direct titration (7.43) and indicates that satisfactory convergence was achieved. The soft-drug was poorly transported across a silicone membrane; it was also air-sensitive due to oxidation of the catechol group. The transport of the pro-soft-drug was more efficient and, over the donor pH range 3-8, increased with pH. At lower values, the largely protonated species was not transported. However, above pH 7. chemical degradation was rapid so that a donor pH of 5-6 was optimum. The β-adrenergic agonist activity of these compounds was tested in vitro by measuring chronotropic and inotropic responses in the guinea pig atria and relaxation of guinea pig trachea precontracted with acetylcholine (10-3 M). The soft~drug was a full agonist on the tracheal preparation but was less potent than isoprenaline. Responses of the soft~drug were competitively antagonised by propranolol (10-6 M). The soft~drug produced an increase in force and rate of the isolated atrial preparatIon. The propyl analogue was equally potent with ED50 of 6.52 x 10-7 M. In contrast, at equivalent doses, the dihydroxy acid showed no activity; only a marginal effect was observed on the tracheal preparation. For the pro~soft-drug, responses were of slow onset, in both preparations, with a slowly developing relaxatlon of the tracheal preparatlon at high concentrations (10-5 M). This is consistent with in vitro results where the dipivaloyl groups are hydrolysed more readily than the ethyl ester to gIve the active soft-drug. These results confirm the validity tif the pro-soft-drug approach to the deUvery of β-adrenoceptor agonists.

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Azidoprofen {2-(4-azidophenyl)propionic acid; AZP}, an azido-substituted arylalkanoic acid, was investigated as a model soft drug candidate for a potential topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA). Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were developed for the assay of AZP, a series of ester analogues and their· degradation products. 1H-NMR spectroscopy was also employed as an analytical method in selected cases. Reduction of the azido-group to the corresponding amine has been proposed as a potential detoxification mechanism for compounds bearing this substituent. An in vitro assay to measure the susceptibility of azides towards reduction was developed using dithiothreitol as a model reducing agent. The rate of reduction of AZP was found to be base-dependent, hence supporting the postulated mechanism of thiol-mediated reduction via nucleophilic attack by the thiolate anion. Prodrugs may enhance topical bioavailability through the manipulation of physico-chemical properties of the parent drug. A series of ester derivatives of AZP were investigated for their susceptibility to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis, which regenerates the parent acid. Use of alcoholic cosolvents with differing alkyl functions to that of the ester resulted in transesterification reactions, which were found to be enzyme-mediated. The skin penetration of AZP was assessed using an in vitro hairless mouse skin model, and silastic membrane in some cases. The rate of permeation of AZP was found to be a similar magnitude to that of the well established NSAIA ibuprofen. Penetration rates were dependent on the vehicle pH and drug concentration when solutions were employed. In contrast, flux was independent of pH when suspension formulations were used. Pretreatment of the skin with various enhancer regimes, including oleic acid and azone in propylene glycol, promoted the penetration of AZP. An intense IR absorption due to the azide group serves as a highly diagnostic marker, enabling azido compounds to be detected in the outer layers of the· stratum corneum following their application to skin, using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). This novel application enabled a non-invasive examination of the percutaneous penetration enhancement of a model azido compound in vivo in man, in the presence of the enhancer oleic acid.

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The production and uses of coal tar are reviewed as are the uses of steroids and cytotoxic agents in the treatment of psoriasis with a review of the condition also. An attempt was made to improve the efficaciousness and cosmetic acceptability of a low temperature tar, by screening fractions of this tar, derived from a variety of separation procedures. The most efficacious fraction was the highest boiling acid fraction, which is believed to consist mainly of mono- and di-hydric phenols. A time and concentration study showed that the optimum regime was the application of a 10% concentration in 5% wool fat in soft, yellow paraffin daily for 21 days. The mouse tail skin was selected as an experimental model, to ascertain the efficaciousness of fractions, because of the similarities between this skin and the psoriatic lesion. The activity of a fraction was monitored by the inducement of a granular layer in the mouse tail epidermis. Because coal tar is not an easy medium to work with, and the active fractions showed no increase in cosmetic acceptability over the parent coal tar, likely coal tar constituents were selected for screening on the basis of phenolic character, and the molecular weight range elucidated by mass spectroscopy. 32 potential anti-psoriatic agents were screened on mouse tail. Two catechols, 3,5-di-t-butyl and 4-t-butyl catechols were active. Other structures showed little or no activity. 24 catechols were screened and two extremely active catechols were discovered, 3-methyl-5-t-octyl and 5-methyl-3-t-octyl catechols. The screening of catechol-rich coal tar fractions and a coal tar fraction which had had the catechols removed by oxidation, showed that some anti-psoriatic activity was contained in the catechol fraction of coal tar. Attempts to elucidate the mode of action of these two compounds met with little success, but two modes of action are suggested.

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The lipophilic dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor m-azidopyrimethamine (MZP) was investigated for suitability for development as a topical antipsoriatic agent. The clinical features and treatments for psoriasis were reviewed. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed as the main analytical method, with UV spectroscopy being used in some cases. Reduction of the azido-group was proposed as a potential detoxification mechanism for MZP. The rates of reduction of a series of substituted phenyl azide compounds by dithiothreitol were investigated and found to depend on the substitution pattern of the aryl azide molecular, with electron deficient azides exhibiting faster rates of reduction in the system studied. The rates of reduction of MZP and analogous compounds were also studied using this model. The skin penetration of MZP was assessed using an in vitro hairless mouse skin model. The rate of permeation (flux) of MZP across hairless mouse skin was found to be dependent on the quantity of propylene glycol used as cosolvent in the vehicle and the pH. The use of a pretreatment regime of oleic acid in propylene glycol was shown to greatly increase the penetration of MZP through the hairless mouse skin as compared to application without pretreatment, or pretreatment with other penetration enhancers. The metabolism of MZP was studied in in vitro models comprising skin homogenates, SV-K14 human keratinocyte cell cultures and skin commensal bacterial cultures. No conversion of MZP to the corresponding amine was detected in any of the models. The growth inhibitory properties of MZP were investigated in an in vitro SV-K14 human keratinocyte cell culture model and compared with those of other DHFR inhibitors. [14C]-pyrimethamine was shown to be taken up by the SV-K14 keratinocytes.

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The facility to controlled triggered release from a “cage” system remains a key requirement for novel drug delivery. Earlier studies have shown that Bis-Azo PC based photosensitive liposomes are beneficial for drug delivery. Thus, the aim of this project was to develop photosensitive liposomes that can be used for the controlled release of drugs through UV irradiation, particularly therapeutic agents for the treatment of psoriasis. Bis-Azo PC was successfully synthesized and incorporated into a range of liposomal formulations, and these liposomes were applied for the controlled release of BSA-FITC. Bis-Azo PC sensitized liposomes were prepared via interdigitation fusion method. IFV containing optimum cholesterol amount in terms of protein loading, stability and photo-trigger release of protein was investigated. Further studies investigated the stability and triggered release of the HMT from IFV. Finally, permeation behavior of HMT and HMT-entrapped IFV through rat skin was examined using Franz cell. Results from protein study indicated that the stable entrapment of the model protein was feasible as shown through fluorescence spectroscopy and maximum of 84% protein release from IFV after 12 min of UV irradiation. Moreover, stability studies indicated that IFV were more stable at 4 0C as compared to 25 0C. Hence, DPPC:Chol:Bis-Azo PC (16:2:1) based IFV was chosen for the controlled release of HMT and these studies exhibited that photo-trigger release and stability data of HMT-entrapped IFV are in line with the protein results. Franz cell work inferred that HMT-entrapped IFV attributed to slower skin permeation as compared to HMT. CLSM also demonstrated that HMT can be used as a fluorescent label for the in vitro skin study. Overall, the work highlighted in this thesis has given useful insight into the potentials of Bis-Azo PC based IFV as a promising carrier for the treatment of psoriasis.

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The production and uses of coal tar are reviewed as are the uses of steroids and cytotoxic agents in the treatment of psoriasis with a review of the condition also. An attempt was made to improve the efficaciousness and cosmetic acceptability of a low temperature tar, by screening fractions of this tar, derived from a variety of separation procedures. The most efficacious fraction was the highest boiling acid fraction, which is believed to consist mainly of mono- and di-hydric phenols. A time and concentration study showed that the optimum regime was the application of a 10% concentration in 5% wool fat in soft, yellow paraffin daily for 21 days. The mouse tail skin was selected as an experimental model, to ascertain the efficaciousness of fractions, because of the similarities between this skin and the psoriatic lesion. The activity of a fraction was monitored by the inducement of a granular layer in the mouse tail epidermis. Because coal tar is not an easy medium to work with, and the active fractions showed no increase in cosmetic acceptability over the parent coal tar, likely coal tar constituents were selected for screening on the basis of phenolic character, and the molecular weight range elucidated by mass spectroscopy. 32 potential anti-psoriatic agents were screened on mouse tail. Two catechols, 3,5-di-t-butyl and 4-t-butyl catechols were active. Other structures showed little or no activity. 24 catechols were screened and two extremely active catechols were discovered, 3-methyl-5-t-octyl and 5-methyl-3-t-octyl catechols. The screening of catechol-rich coal tar fractions and a coal tar fraction which had had the catechols removed by oxidation, showed that some anti-psoriatic activity was contained in the catechol fraction of coal tar. Attempts to elucidate the mode of action of these two compounds met with little success, but two modes of action are suggested.

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The lipophilic dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor m-azidopyrimethamine (MZP) was investigated for suitability for development as a topical antipsoriatic agent. The clinical features and treatments for psoriasis were reviewed. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed as the main analytical method, with UV spectroscopy being used in some cases. Reduction of the azido-group was proposed as a potential detoxification mechanism for MZP. The rates of reduction of a series of substituted phenyl azide compounds by dithiothreitol were investigated and found to depend on the substitution pattern of the aryl azide molecular, with electron deficient azides exhibiting faster rates of reduction in the system studied. The rates of reduction of MZP and analogous compounds were also studied using this model. The skin penetration of MZP was assessed using an in vitro hairless mouse skin model. The rate of permeation (flux) of MZP across hairless mouse skin was found to be dependent on the quantity of propylene glycol used as cosolvent in the vehicle and the pH. The use of a pretreatment regime of oleic acid in propylene glycol was shown to greatly increase the penetration of MZP through the hairless mouse skin as compared to application without pretreatment, or pretreatment with other penetration enhancers. The metabolism of MZP was studied in in vitro models comprising skin homogenates, SV-K14 human keratinocyte cell cultures and skin commensal bacterial cultures. No conversion of MZP to the corresponding amine was detected in any of the models. The growth inhibitory properties of MZP were investigated in an in vitro SV-K14 human keratinocyte cell culture model and compared with those of other DHFR inhibitors. [14C]-pyrimethamine was shown to be taken up by the SV-K14 keratinocytes.