7 resultados para genotypes
em Publishing Network for Geoscientific
Background: Studies of oyster microbiomes have revealed that a limited number of microbes, including pathogens, can dominate microbial communities in host tissues such as gills and gut. Much of the bacterial diversity however remains underexplored and unexplained, although environmental conditions and host genetics have been implicated. We used 454 next generation 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of individually tagged PCR reactions to explore the diversity of bacterial communities in gill tissue of the invasive Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas stemming from genetically differentiated beds under ambient outdoor conditions and after a multifaceted disturbance treatment imposing stress on the host. Results: While the gill associated microbial communities in oysters were dominated by few abundant taxa (i.e. Sphingomonas, Mycoplasma) the distribution of rare bacterial groups correlated to relatedness between the hosts under ambient conditions. Exposing the host to disturbance broke apart this relationship by removing rare phylotypes thereby reducing overall microbial diversity. Shifts in the microbiome composition in response to stress did not result in a net increase in genera known to contain potentially pathogenic strains. Conclusion: The decrease in microbial diversity and the disassociation between population genetic structure of the hosts and their associated microbiome suggest that disturbance (i.e. stress) may play a significant role for the assembly of the natural microbiome. Such community shifts may in turn also feed back on the course of disease and the occurrence of mass mortality events in oyster populations.
Pumas are one of the most studied terrestrial mammals because of their widespread distribution, substantial ecological impacts, and conflicts with humans. Extensive efforts, often employing genetic methods, are undertaken to manage this species. However, the comparison of population genetic data is difficult because few of the microsatellite loci chosen are shared across research programs. Here, we describe the development of PumaPlex, a high-throughput assay to genotype 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pumas. We validated PumaPlex in more than 700 North American pumas (Puma concolor couguar), and demonstrated its ability to generate reproducible genotypes and accurately identify individuals. Furthermore, we compared PumaPlex with traditional genotyping of 12 microsatellite loci in fecal DNA samples and found that PumaPlex produced significantly more genotypes with fewer false alleles. PumaPlex promotes the cross-laboratory comparison of genotypes, is easily expandable in the future, and is a valuable tool for the genetic monitoring and management of North American puma populations.
The provided file archive contains genotype data from mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vent mussels (genus Bathymodiolus) at 18 SNP loci and the mitochondrial ND4 gene (BMAR_Baz_Bpu_genotypes.txt). The subfolders denote statistical programs used in the multilocus genotyping study and contain input files and scripts that were used in the respective analyses.
Adaptive immunity in vertebrates can confer increased resistance against invading pathogens upon re-infection. But how specific parasite genotypes affect the transition from innate to adaptive immunity is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of homologous and heterologous exposures of genetically distinct parasite lineages of the eye fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on gene expression patterns of adaptive immunity in sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We showed that observable differences were largely attributable to final exposures and that there is no transcription pattern characteristic for a general response to repeated infections with D. pseudospathaceum. Final exposure did not unify expression patterns of heterologous pre-exposed fish. Interestingly, heterologous final exposures showed similarities between different treatment groups subjected to homologous pre-exposure. The observed pattern was supported by parasite infection rates and suggests that host immunization was optimized towards an adaptive immune response that favored effectiveness against parasite diversity over specificity.