12 resultados para Acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

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Acute hemorrhagic edema of young children is an uncommon but likely underestimated cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The condition typically affects infants 6-24 months of age with a history of recent respiratory illness with or without course of antibiotics. The diagnosis is made in children, mostly nontoxic in appearance, presenting with nonpruritic, large, round, red to purpuric plaques predominantly over the cheeks, ears, and extremities, with relative sparing of the trunk, often with a target-like appearance, and edema of the distal extremities, ears, and face that is mostly non-pitting, indurative, and tender. In boys, the lesions sometimes involve the scrotum and, more rarely, the penis. Fever, typically of low grade, is often present. Involvement of body systems other than skin is uncommon, and spontaneous recovery usually occurs within 6-21 days without sequelae. In this condition, laboratory tests are non-contributory: total blood cell count is often normal, although leukocytosis and thrombocytosis are sometimes found, clotting studies are normal, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein test are normal or slightly elevated, complement level is normal, autoantibodies are absent, and urinalysis is usually normal. Experienced physicians rapidly consider the possible diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic edema when presented with a nontoxic young child having large targetoid purpuric lesions and indurative swelling, which is non-pitting in character, and make the diagnosis either on the basis of clinical findings alone or supported by a skin biopsy study.

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BACKGROUND: Acute hemorrhagic edema is an uncommon leukocytoclastic small-vessel vasculitis of young children. OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical features and outcome of acute hemorrhagic edema of young children. METHODS: Seven new cases are reported. A search of the literature revealed 287 published cases. RESULTS: The 294 children (boys, 67%) ranged in age between 2 and 60 months (median, 11 months) and were in good general condition. In 195 children the disease developed after a simple acute infection. The exanthemata included large, round, red to purpuric plaques predominantly over the cheeks, ears, and extremities and mostly tender edema of the distal extremities, ears, and face. Involvement of body systems other than skin was rare. The children recovered spontaneously without sequelae. LIMITATIONS: Results of this review must be viewed with an understanding of the limitations of the analysis process, which incorporated data exclusively from single case reports or case series. CONCLUSIONS: Acute hemorrhagic edema of young children is a very benign vasculitis. Physicians might rapidly develop the skills necessary to diagnose this condition.

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BACKGROUND: Volume resuscitation is one of the primary therapeutic goals in hemorrhagic shock, but data on microcirculatory effects of different colloidal fluid resuscitation regimen are sparse. We investigated sublingual mucosal microcirculatory parameters during hemorrhage and after fluid resuscitation with gelatin, hydroxyethyl starch, or hypertonic saline and hydroxyethyl starch in pigs. METHODS: To induce hemorrhagic shock, 60% of calculated blood volume was withdrawn. Microvascular blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler velocimetry. Microcirculatory hemoglobin oxygen saturation was measured with a tissue reflectance spectrophotometry, and side darkfield imaging was used to visualize the microcirculation and to quantify the flow quality. Systemic hemodynamic variables, systemic acid base and blood gas variables, and lactate measurements were recorded. Measurements were performed at baseline, after hemorrhage, and after fluid resuscitation with a fixed volume regimen. RESULTS: Systemic hemodynamic parameters returned or even exceeded to baseline values in all three groups after fluid resuscitation, but showed significantly higher filling pressures and cardiac output values in animals treated with isotonic colloids. Microcirculatory parameters determined in gelatin and hydroxyethyl starch resuscitated animals, and almost all parameters except microvascular hemoglobin oxygen saturation in animals treated with hypertonic saline and hydroxyethyl starch, were restored after treatment. DISCUSSION: Hemorrhaged pigs can be hemodynamically stabilized with either isotonic or hypertonic colloidal fluids. The main finding is an adequate restoration of sublingual microcirculatory blood flow and flow quality in all three study groups, but only gelatin and hydroxyethyl starch improved microvascular hemoglobin oxygen saturation, indicating some inadequate oxygen supply/demand ratio maybe due to a better restoration of systemic hemodynamics in isotonic colloidal resuscitated animals.

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The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different fluid types for resuscitation after experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock in anesthetized chickens and to evaluate partial pressures of carbon dioxide measured in arterial blood (Paco2), with a transcutaneous monitor (TcPco2), with a gastric intraluminal monitor (GiPco2), and by end tidal measurements (Etco2) under stable conditions and after induced hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in 40 white leghorn chickens by removing 50% of blood volume by phlebotomy under general anesthesia. Birds were divided into 4 groups: untreated (control group) and treated with intravenous hetastarch (haes group), with a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemospan group), or by autotransfusion (blood group). Respiratory rates, heart rates, and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) were compared at 8 time points (baseline [T0]; at the loss of 10% [T10%], 20% [T20%], 30% [T30%], 40% [T40%], and 50% [T50%] of blood volume; at the end of resuscitation [RES]; and at the end of anesthesia [END]). Packed cell volume (PCV) and blood hemoglobin content were compared at 6 time points (T0, T50%, RES, and 1, 3, and 7 days after induced hemorrhagic shock). Measurements of Paco2, TcPco2, GiPco2, and Etco2 were evaluated at 2 time points (T0 and T50%), and venous lactic acid concentrations were evaluated at 3 time points (T0, T50%, and END). No significant differences were found in mortality, respiratory rate, heart rate, PCV, or hemoglobin values among the 4 groups. Birds given fluid resuscitation had significantly higher SAPs after fluid administration than did birds in the control group. In all groups, PCV and hemoglobin concentrations began to rise by day 3 after phlebotomy, and baseline values were reached 7 days after blood removal. At T0, TcPco2 did not differ significantly from Paco2, but GiPco2 and Etco2 differed significantly from Paco2. After hemorrhagic shock, GiPco2 and TcPco2 differed significantly from Paco2. The TcPco2 or GiPco2 values did not differ significantly at any time point in birds that survived or died in any of the groups and across all groups. These results showed no difference in mortality in leghorn chickens treated with fluid resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock and that the PCV and hemoglobin concentrations increased by 3 days after acute hemorrhage with or without treatment. The different CO2 measurements document changes in CO2-values consistent with poor perfusion and may prove useful for serial evaluation of responses to shock and shock treatment.

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Acute hemorrhagic edema of young children is a rare leukocytoclastic vasculitis that has been reported exclusively in small retrospective cases series, case reports, or quizzes. Considering that retrospective experience deserves confirmation in at least one observational prospective study, we present our experience with 16 children (12 boys and 4 girls, 5-28 months of age) affected by acute hemorrhagic edema. The patients were in good general conditions and with a low-grade or even absent fever. They presented with non-itching red to purpuric targetoid lesions not changing location within hours, with non-pitting and sometimes tender indurative swelling, and without mucous membrane involvement or scratch marks. Signs for articular, abdominal, or kidney involvement were absent. Antinuclear or antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies were never detected. The cases were managed symptomatically as outpatients and fully resolved within 4 weeks or less. No recurrence or familiarity was noted. CONCLUSION This is the first prospective evaluation of hemorrhagic edema. Our findings emphasize its distinctive tetrad: a well-appearing child; targetoid lesions that do not change location within hours; non-pitting, sometimes tender edema; complete resolution without recurrence. What is known • Acute hemorrhagic edema of young children is considered a benign vasculitis. • There have been ≈100 cases reported in small retrospective case series. What is new • The first prospective evaluation of this condition emphasizes its features: febrile prodrome; well-appearing child; targetoid lesions not changing location within hours; non-pitting, sometimes tender indurative edema; absent extracutaneous involvement; resolution within 3 weeks. • Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies do not play a pathogenic role.

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Although Henoch-Schönlein syndrome can occur at any age, it is overwhelmingly a disease of childhood. Indeed, Henoch-Schönlein syndrome is the most common vasculitis that affects children. The clinical features of this vasculitis are well documented, and the diagnosis is generally not difficult. This article briefly reviews both common and uncommon clinical aspects of the condition and information concerning therapy. A further focus of this review is recent information concerning abnormalities of immunoglobulin IgA1 glycosylation and the role of aberrantly glycosylated immunoglobulins in the development of Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. The final focus of the article is acute hemorrhagic edema, a benign vasculitis limited to the skin, which is characterized by circinate, medallion-like purpura, and ecchymoses and occurs in children younger than 4 years of age. The nosologic position of acute hemorrhagic edema, which has also been called Finkelstein-Seidlmayer syndrome, as a variant of Henoch-Schönlein syndrome is the subject of considerable debate, but most authors agree that there are sufficient clinical and prognostic differences to consider it a separate entity.

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The case of a 20 month-old girl that was admitted to the emergency ward because of worsening of her general condition in the setting of acute non-bloody gastroenteritis is reported. The clinical examination revealed signs of severe dehydration and a prominent tender abdomen. Laboratory evaluation showed leucocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein and severe hypochromic microcytic anemia. Abdominal X-ray revealed diffuse meteorism. The child underwent laparascopic evaluation. A perforated Meckel's diverticulum was found. Perforation and anemia due to occult bleeding are unusual presentations of Meckel's diverticulum. The differential diagnosis of children presenting with an acute abdomen with special focus on Meckel's diverticulum is discussed.

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Mechanical thrombectomy using stent retriever devices have been advocated to increase revascularization in intracranial vessel occlusion. We present the results of a large prospective study on the use of the Solitaire Flow Restoration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS Solitaire Flow Restoration Thrombectomy for Acute Revascularization was an international, multicenter, prospective, single-arm study of Solitaire Flow Restoration thrombectomy in patients with large vessel anterior circulation strokes treated within 8 hours of symptom onset. Strict criteria for site selection were applied. The primary end point was the revascularization rate (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction ≥2b) of the occluded vessel as determined by an independent core laboratory. The secondary end point was the rate of good functional outcome (defined as 90-day modified Rankin scale, 0-2). RESULTS A total of 202 patients were enrolled across 14 comprehensive stroke centers in Europe, Canada, and Australia. The median age was 72 years, 60% were female patients. The median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 17. Most proximal intracranial occlusion was the internal carotid artery in 18%, and the middle cerebral artery in 82%. Successful revascularization was achieved in 79.2% of patients. Device and procedure-related severe adverse events were found in 7.4%. Favorable neurological outcome was found in 57.9%. The mortality rate was 6.9%. Any intracranial hemorrhagic transformation was found in 18.8% of patients, 1.5% were symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS In this single-arm study, treatment with the Solitaire Flow Restoration device in intracranial anterior circulation occlusions results in high rates of revascularization, low risk of clinically relevant procedural complications, and good clinical outcomes in combination with low mortality at 90 days. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01327989.

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Abstract BACKGROUND: Pulse pressure variations (PPVs) and stroke volume variations (SVVs) are dynamic indices for predicting fluid responsiveness in intensive care unit patients. These hemodynamic markers underscore Frank-Starling law by which volume expansion increases cardiac output (CO). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the administration of catecholamines on PPV, SVV, and inferior vena cava flow (IVCF). METHODS: In this prospective, physiologic, animal study, hemodynamic parameters were measured in deeply sedated and mechanically ventilated pigs. Systemic hemodynamic and pressure-volume loops obtained by inferior vena cava occlusion were recorded. Measurements were collected during two conditions, that is, normovolemia and hypovolemia, generated by blood removal to obtain a mean arterial pressure value lower than 60 mm Hg. At each condition, CO, IVCF, SVV, and PPV were assessed by catheters and flow meters. Data were compared between the conditions normovolemia and hypovolemia before and after intravenous administrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine using a nonparametric Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: Eight pigs were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and equipped. Both norepinephrine and epinephrine significantly increased IVCF and decreased PPV and SVV, regardless of volemic conditions (p < 0.05). However, epinephrine was also able to significantly increase CO regardless of volemic conditions. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that intravenous administrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine increase IVCF, whatever the volemic conditions are. The concomitant decreases in PPV and SVV corroborate the fact that catecholamine administration recruits unstressed blood volume. In this regard, understanding a decrease in PPV and SVV values, after catecholamine administration, as an obvious indication of a restored volemia could be an outright misinterpretation.

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Lawsonia intracellularis is the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy. The clinical presentation can be acute (i.e. proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy, PHE), chronic (i.e. porcine intestinal adenomatosis, PIA) or subclinical. In humans with chronic enteropathies, low serum folate (vitamin B(9)) and cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) concentrations have been associated with increased serum concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA), which reflect the availability of both vitamins at the cellular level. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and MMA concentrations in serum samples from pigs with PHE, PIA or subclinical L. intracellularis infection, and in negative controls. Serum folate, cobalamin, homocysteine and MMA concentrations differed significantly among pigs in the PHE, PIA, subclinical and negative control groups. Serum folate concentrations in the PHE and PIA groups were lower than in the subclinical and negative control groups, while serum cobalamin concentrations were lower in the PIA group than in other groups. Serum concentrations of homocysteine were higher in the PHE, PIA and subclinical groups than in the negative control group. Serum concentrations of MMA were higher in the subclinical and PIA groups than in the control group. These data suggest that pigs infected with L. intracellularis have altered serum cobalamin, folate, homocysteine and MMA concentrations.

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BACKGROUND Multiple scores have been proposed to stratify bleeding risk, but their value to guide dual antiplatelet therapy duration has never been appraised. We compared the performance of the CRUSADE (Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of the ACC/AHA Guidelines), ACUITY (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy), and HAS-BLED (Hypertension, Abnormal Renal/Liver Function, Stroke, Bleeding History or Predisposition, Labile INR, Elderly, Drugs/Alcohol Concomitantly) scores in 1946 patients recruited in the Prolonging Dual Antiplatelet Treatment After Grading Stent-Induced Intimal Hyperplasia Study (PRODIGY) and assessed hemorrhagic and ischemic events in the 24- and 6-month dual antiplatelet therapy groups. METHODS AND RESULTS Bleeding score performance was assessed with a Cox regression model and C statistics. Discriminative and reclassification power was assessed with net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement. The C statistic was similar between the CRUSADE score (area under the curve 0.71) and ACUITY (area under the curve 0.68), and higher than HAS-BLED (area under the curve 0.63). CRUSADE, but not ACUITY, improved reclassification (net reclassification index 0.39, P=0.005) and discrimination (integrated discrimination improvement index 0.0083, P=0.021) of major bleeding compared with HAS-BLED. Major bleeding and transfusions were higher in the 24- versus 6-month dual antiplatelet therapy groups in patients with a CRUSADE score >40 (hazard ratio for bleeding 2.69, P=0.035; hazard ratio for transfusions 4.65, P=0.009) but not in those with CRUSADE score ≤40 (hazard ratio for bleeding 1.50, P=0.25; hazard ratio for transfusions 1.37, P=0.44), with positive interaction (Pint=0.05 and Pint=0.01, respectively). The number of patients with high CRUSADE scores needed to treat for harm for major bleeding and transfusion were 17 and 15, respectively, with 24-month rather than 6-month dual antiplatelet therapy; corresponding figures in the overall population were 67 and 71, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our analysis suggests that the CRUSADE score predicts major bleeding similarly to ACUITY and better than HAS BLED in an all-comer population with percutaneous coronary intervention and potentially identifies patients at higher risk of hemorrhagic complications when treated with a long-term dual antiplatelet therapy regimen. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00611286.