4 resultados para genotypes
em Brock University, Canada
A total of 251 bacterial isolates were isolated from blotched mushroom samples obtained from various mushroom farms in Canada. Out of 251 stored isolates, 170 isolates were tested for pathogenicity on Agaricus bisporus through mushroom rapid pitting test with three distinct pathotypes observed: dark brown, brovm and yellow/yellow-brown blotch. Phenotypic analysis of 83 isolates showed two distinct proteinase K resistant peptide profiles. Profile group A isolates exhibited peptides with masses of 45, 18, 16 and 14 kDa and fiirther biochemical tests identified them as Pseudomonasfluorescens III and V. Profile group B isolates lacked the 16-kDa peptide and the blotch causing bacterial isolates of this group was identified as Serratia liquefaciens and Cedecea davisae. Comparative genetic analysis using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) on 50 Pseudomonas sp. isolates (Group A) showed that various blotch symptoms were caused by isolates distributed throughout the Pseudomonas sp. clusters with the exception of the Pseudomonas tolaasii group and one non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens cluster. These results show that seven distinct Pseudomonas sp. genotypes (genetic clusters) have the ability to cause various symptoms of blotch and that AFLP can discriminate blotch causing from non-blotch causing Pseudomonasfluorescens. Therefore, a complex of diverse bacterial organisms causes bacterial blotch disease
A. strain of Drosophila melanog-aster deficient in null amylase activity (Amylase ) was isolated from a wild null population of flies. The survivorship of Amylase homozygous flies is very low when the principal dietary carbohydrate source is starch. However, the survivorship of the null Amylase genotype is comparable to the wild type when the dietary starch is replaced by glucose. In addition, the null viability of the amylase-producing and Amylase strains is comparable v and very lm<] f on a medium with no carbohydrates . Furthermore, amylase-producing genotypes were shovm to excrete enzymatically active amylase protein into the food medium. The excreted amylase causes the external breakdown of dietary starch to sugar. These results led to the following null prediction: the viability of the A.mvlase genotype (fed on a starch rich diet) might increase in the presence of individuals which were amylase-producing. It was shown experimentally that such an increase in viability did in fact occur and that this increase v\Tas proportional to the number of mnylase..::producing fli.es present. These results provide a unique example of a non-"competi ti ve inter-genotype interaction, and one where the underlying physio~ logical and biochemical mechanism has been fully understood.
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are the result of ancient germ cell infections of human germ cells by exogenous retroviruses. HERVs belong to the long terminal repeat (LTR) group of retrotransposons that comprise ~8% of the human genome. The majority of the HERVs documented have been truncated and/or incurred lethal mutations and no longer encode functional genes; however a very small number of HERVs seem to maintain functional in making new copies by retrotranspositon as suggested by the identification of a handful of polymorphic HERV insertions in human populations. The objectives of this study were to identify novel insertion of HERVs via analysis of personal genomic data and survey the polymorphism levels of new and known HERV insertions in the human genome. Specifically, this study involves the experimental validation of polymorphic HERV insertion candidates predicted by personal genome-based computation prediction and survey the polymorphism level within the human population based on a set of 30 diverse human DNA samples. Based on computational analysis of a limited number of personal genome sequences, PCR genotyping aided in the identification of 15 dimorphic, 2 trimorphic and 5 fixed full-length HERV-K insertions not previously investigated. These results suggest that the proliferation rate of HERVKs, perhaps also other ERVs, in the human genome may be much higher than we previously appreciated and the recently inserted HERVs exhibit a high level of instability. Throughout this study we have observed the frequent presence of additional forms of genotypes for these HERV insertions, and we propose for the first time the establishment of new genotype reporting nomenclature to reflect all possible combinations of the pre-integration site, solo-LTR and full-length HERV alleles.
Regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation in fast twitch muscle is catalyzed by skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK), a reaction known to increase muscle force, work, and power. The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of RLC phosphorylation on the power of mouse fast muscle during high frequency (100 Hz) concentric contractions. To determine peak power shortening ramps (1.05 to 0.90 Lo) were applied to Wildtype (WT) and skMLCK knockout (skMLCK-/-) EDL muscles at a range of shortening velocities between 0.05-0.65 of maximal shortening velocity (Vmax), before and after a conditioning stimulus (CS). As a result, mean power was increased to 1.28 ± 0.05 and 1.11 ± .05 of pre-CS values, when collapsed for shortening velocity in WT and skMLCK-/-, respectively (n = 10). In addition, fitting each data set to a second order polynomial revealed that WT mice had significantly higher peak power output (27.67 ± 1.12 W/ kg-1) than skMLCK-/- (25.97 ± 1.02 W/ kg-1), (p < .05). No significant differences in optimal velocity for peak power were found between conditions and genotypes (p > .05). Analysis with Urea Glycerol PAGE determined that RLC phosphate content had been elevated in WT muscles from 8 to 63 % while minimal changes were observed in skMLCK-/- muscles: 3 and 8 %, respectively. Therefore, the lack of stimulation induced increase in RLC phosphate content resulted in a ~40 % smaller enhancement of mean power in skMLCK-/-. The increase in power output in WT mice suggests that RLC phosphorylation is a major potentiating component required for achieving peak muscle performance during brief high frequency concentric contractions.