11 resultados para genotypes

em Universit�� de Lausanne, Switzerland


Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) provides researchers with the ability to record genetic polymorphism across thousands of loci for nonmodel organisms, potentially revolutionizing the field of molecular ecology. However, as with other genotyping methods, RADseq is prone to a number of sources of error that may have consequential effects for population genetic inferences, and these have received only limited attention in terms of the estimation and reporting of genotyping error rates. Here we use individual sample replicates, under the expectation of identical genotypes, to quantify genotyping error in the absence of a reference genome. We then use sample replicates to (i) optimize de novo assembly parameters within the program Stacks, by minimizing error and maximizing the retrieval of informative loci; and (ii) quantify error rates for loci, alleles and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. As an empirical example, we use a double-digest RAD data set of a nonmodel plant species, Berberis alpina, collected from high-altitude mountains in Mexico.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Background: T reatment o f chronic hepatitis C i s evolving, a nd direct acting antivirals ( DAAs) are now a dded to p egylated interferon-α ( Peg- INF-α) and ribavirin (RBV) for the treatment o f hepatitis C v irus ( HCV) genotype 1 infection. DAAs c ause d ifferent side effects and can even worsen RBV induced hemolytic anemia. T herefore, identifying host genetic d eterminants of R BV bioavailability and therapeutic e fficacy will remain crucial for individualized treatment. Recent d ata showed associations between R BV induced h emolytic anemia and genetic polymorphisms o f concentrative nucleoside transporters s uch as C NT3 (SLC28A3) and i nosine t riphosphatase (ITPA). T o analyze t he association of genetic variants of SLC28 transporters and ITPA with RBV induced hemolytic anemia and treatment o utcome. Methods: I n our study, 173 patients f rom t he S wiss Hepatitis C C ohort Study and 2 2 patients from Swiss Association for the Study of the Liver study 24 (61% HCV g enotype 1, 3 9% genotypes 2 o r 3) were analyzed for SLC28A2 single nucleotide p olymorphism (SNP) rs11854484, SLC28A3 rs56350726 and SLC28A3 rs10868138 as well as ITPA SNPs rs1127354 and rs7270101. RBV serum levels during treatment were measured in 49 patients. Results: SLC28A2 r s11854484 genotype TT was associated with significantly higher dosage- and body weight-adjusted RBV levels as compared to genotypes TC and CC (p=0.04 and p=0.02 at weeks 4 and 8, respectively). ITPA SNPs rs1127354 and rs7270101 were associated with h emolytic a nemia both in genotype as w ell as i n allelic a nalyses. SLC28A3 rs56350726 genotype TT (vs. AT/AA, RR=2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.1) as well as the T allele (vs. A; RR=1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.2) were associated with increased SVR rates. The combined analysis of overall ITPA activity and SLC28 v ariants together revealed n o significant a dditive effects on either treatment-related anemia or SVR. Conclusions: T he newly identified association between RBV serum levels a nd SLC28A2 rs11854484 genotype as well as the replicated association of ITPA and SLC28A3 g enetic p olymorphisms w ith RBV induced hemolytic anemia and treatment r esponse underpin the need for further studies on host genetic d eterminants of R BV bioavailability and therapeutic e fficacy f or individualized treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 are hepatic enzymes that metabolize about 50% of drugs on the market, with a large overlap in their specificities. We investigated the genetic bases that contribute to the variation of CYP3A activity. We phenotyped 251 individuals from two independent studies (182 patients treated with methadone and 69 patients with clozapine) for CYP3A activity using the midazolam phenotyping test and genotyped them for CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 genetic variants, including the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4646437C>T in intron 7 of CYP3A4. Owing to the fact that CYP enzymes require electron transfer through the P450 oxidoreductase (POR), and functional impairment has been shown for the POR*28 SNP, this polymorphism was also analysed. We show that CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 genotypes, including the SNP rs4646437C>T, do not reflect the inter-individual variability of CYP3A activity (P>0.1). In contrast, POR*28 TT genotype presents a 1.6-fold increase in CYP3A activity compared with POR*28C carriers (n = 182, P = 0.004). This finding was replicated in the second independent dataset (n = 69, P = 0.04). The SNP POR*28 seems to be a better genetic marker of the variability of total CYP3A activity in vivo than CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 genetic variants.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic, depends mainly on cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) for its metabolic clearance. CYP1A2 is inducible by smoking, and lower plasma concentrations of clozapine are measured in smokers than in nonsmokers. Case reports have been published on the effects of discontinuing smoking in patients receiving clozapine, which might lead to elevated plasma concentrations and severe side effects. We present 2 cases on the consequences of smoking cessation in patients receiving this drug. In the first patient, smoking cessation resulted, within 2 weeks, in severe sedation and fatigue, with an approximately 3-fold increase of plasma clozapine concentrations. In the second patient, a very high plasma concentration of clozapine (3004 ng/mL) was measured 6 days following a 16-day stay in a general hospital, during which smoking was prohibited. In the latter patient, the replacement of omeprazole, a strong CYP1A2 inducer, by pantoprazole, a weaker CYP1A2 inducer, could have contributed, in addition to smoking cessation, to the observed strong increase of plasma clozapine concentrations. Genotyping of the 2 patients revealed that they were carriers of the AA genotype for the -164C>A polymorphism (CYP1A2*1F) in intron 1 of CYP1A2 gene, which has previously been shown to confer a high inducibility of CYP1A2 by smoking. Thus, at the initiation of clozapine treatment, smoking patients should be informed that, if they decide to stop smoking, they are encouraged to do so but must inform their prescriber beforehand. Also, because of the increased use of no-smoking policies in many hospitals, studies examining the consequences of such policies on the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, taking into account different CYP1A2 genotypes, are needed.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

To assess the impact of international consensus conference guidelines on the attitude of Swiss specialists when facing the decision to treat chronic hepatitis C patients. Questionnaires focusing on the personal situation and treatment decisions were mailed to 165 patients who were newly diagnosed with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and enrolled into the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study during the years 2002-2004. Survey respondents (n = 86, 52.1%) were comparable to non-respondents with respect to severity of liver disease, history of substance abuse and psychiatric co-morbidities. Seventy percent of survey respondents reported having been offered antiviral treatment. Patients deferred from treatment had less advanced liver fibrosis, were more frequently infected with HCV genotypes 1 or 4 and presented more often with a history of depression. There were no differences regarding age, socio-economic background, alcohol abuse, intravenous drug abuse or methadone treatment when compared with patients to whom treatment was proposed. Ninety percent of eligible patients agreed to undergo treatment. Overall, 54.6% of respondents and 78.3% of those considered eligible had actually received antiviral therapy by 2007. Ninety-five percent of patients reported high satisfaction with their own hepatitis C management. Consistent with latest international consensus guidelines, patients enrolled in the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort with a history of substance abuse were not withheld antiviral treatment. A multidisciplinary approach is warranted to provide antiviral treatment to patients suffering from depression.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Three sibling species of shrews, the common shrew (Sorex araneus), the Valais shrew (S. antinorii) and the Jersey shrew (S. coronatus) are morphologically similar. Different techniques based on karyorypes, morphology, biochemistry and genetic markers have been developed to identify individuals from these taxa. In this paper, we have used multiple microsatellite markers (L13, L14 and L99) to identify 55 dead animals coming from the Tarentaise Valley in France. As some individuals showed an unclear pattern with loci previously thought to be diagnostic (Lugon-Moulin et al. 2000), we have used morphologic measurements (Hausser et al. 1991) to confirm the status of these animals. This analysis clearly showed the limitations of the use of genetic diagnostic markers that have been designed in local populations and then applied to a wider scale. Even if these markers have great advantages over other techniques (i.e. simple to use and do not require samples from living animals), they should always be used with caution. There is always a risk of a locus not being diagnostic in the sampling region or in finding individuals with hybrid genotypes. Additional genetic markers should then be used, simultaneously with other identification techniques, to be sure of the status of the individuals.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

An impaired glutathione (GSH) synthesis was observed in several multifactorial diseases, including schizophrenia and myocardial infarction. Genetic studies revealed an association between schizophrenia and a GAG trinucleotide repeat (TNR) polymorphism in the catalytic subunit (GCLC) of the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL). Disease-associated genotypes of this polymorphism correlated with a decrease in GCLC protein expression, GCL activity and GSH content. To clarify consequences of a decreased GCL activity at the proteome level, three schizophrenia patients and three controls have been selected based on the GCLC GAG TNR polymorphism. Fibroblast cultures were obtained by skin biopsy and were challenged with tert-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ), a substance known to induce oxidative stress. Proteome changes were analyzed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and results revealed 10 spots that were upregulated in patients following t-BHQ treatment, but not in controls. Nine corresponding proteins could be identified by MALDI mass spectrometry and these proteins are involved in various cellular functions, including energy metabolism, oxidative stress response, and cytoskeletal reorganization. In conclusion, skin fibroblasts of subjects with an impaired GSH synthesis showed an altered proteome reaction in response to oxidative stress. Furthermore, the study corroborates the use of fibroblasts as an additional mean to study vulnerability factors of psychiatric diseases.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading nosocomial pathogens in intensive care units (ICUs). The source of this microorganism can be either endogenous or exogenous. The proportion of cases as a result of transmission is still debated, and its elucidation is important for implementing appropriate control measures. To understand the relative importance of exogenous vs. endogenous sources of P. aeruginosa, molecular typing was performed on all available P. aeruginosa isolated from ICU clinical and environmental specimens in 1998, 2000, 2003, 2004 and 2007. Patient samples were classified according to their P. aeruginosa genotypes into three categories: (A) identical to isolate from faucet; (B) identical to at least one other patient sample and not found in faucet; and (C) unique genotype. Cases in categories A and B were considered as possibly exogenous, and cases in category C as possibly endogenous. A mean of 34 cases per 1000 admissions per year were found to be colonized or infected by P. aeruginosa. Higher levels of faucet contamination were correlated with a higher number of cases in category A. The number of cases in category B varied from 1.9 to 20 cases per 1000 admissions. This number exceeded 10/1000 admissions on three occasions and was correlated with an outbreak on one occasion. The number of cases considered as endogenous (category C) was stable and independent of the number of cases in categories A and B. The present study shows that repeated molecular typing can help identify variations in the epidemiology of P. aeruginosa in ICU patients and guide infection control measures.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

BACKGROUND: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune genes have been associated with susceptibility to invasive mold infection (IMI) among hematopoietic stem cell but not solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. METHODS: Twenty-four SNPs from systematically selected genes were genotyped among 1101 SOT recipients (715 kidney transplant recipients, 190 liver transplant recipients, 102 lung transplant recipients, 79 heart transplant recipients, and 15 recipients of other transplants) from the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. Association between SNPs and the end point were assessed by log-rank test and Cox regression models. Cytokine production upon Aspergillus stimulation was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers and correlated with relevant genotypes. RESULTS: Mold colonization (n = 45) and proven/probable IMI (n = 26) were associated with polymorphisms in the genes encoding interleukin 1β (IL1B; rs16944; recessive mode, P = .001 for colonization and P = .00005 for IMI, by the log-rank test), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN; rs419598; P = .01 and P = .02, respectively), and β-defensin 1 (DEFB1; rs1800972; P = .001 and P = .0002, respectively). The associations with IL1B and DEFB1 remained significant in a multivariate regression model (P = .002 for IL1B rs16944; P = .01 for DEFB1 rs1800972). The presence of 2 copies of the rare allele of rs16944 or rs419598 was associated with reduced Aspergillus-induced interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor α secretion by PBMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Functional polymorphisms in IL1B and DEFB1 influence susceptibility to mold infection in SOT recipients. This observation may contribute to individual risk stratification.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Cirrhosis is a frequent and severe disease, complicated by renal sodium retention leading to ascites and oedema. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms responsible for renal sodium handling could improve clinical management of sodium retention. Our aim was to determine the importance of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in collecting ducts in compensate and decompensate cirrhosis. Bile duct ligation was performed in control mice (CTL) and collecting duct-specific αENaC knockout (KO) mice, and ascites development, aldosterone plasma concentration, urinary sodium/potassium ratio and sodium transporter expression were compared. Disruption of ENaC in collecting ducts (CDs) did not alter ascites development, urinary sodium/potassium ratio, plasma aldosterone concentrations or Na,K-ATPase abundance in CCDs. Total αENaC abundance in whole kidney increased in cirrhotic mice of both genotypes and cleaved forms of α and γ ENaC increased only in ascitic mice of both genotypes. The sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) abundance was lower in non-ascitic KO, compared to non-ascitic CTL, and increased when ascites appeared. In ascitic mice, the lack of αENaC in CDs induced an upregulation of total ENaC and NCC and correlated with the cleavage of ENaC subunits. This revealed compensatory mechanisms which could also take place when treating the patients with diuretics. These compensatory mechanisms should be considered for future development of therapeutic strategies.

Relevância:

10.00% 10.00%

Publicador:

Resumo:

Seizures associated with fever are a common pediatric problem, affecting about 2-7 % of children between 3 months and 5 years of age. Differentiation of febrile seizures from acute symptomatic seizures secondary to central nervous system infections or seizures associated with fever in children with epilepsy is essential to provide appropriate treatment and follow-up care. Here, we tested the hypothesis that children who exhibit simple febrile seizures during early childhood, but do not develop epileptic seizures later in life, might preferentially carry the ApoE2 allele of the gene coding for the apolipoprotein E. We did not find any differences in the distribution of ApoE alleles or genotypes between individuals who exhibited simple febrile seizures (n = 93) and age-matched, typically developing subjects (n = 80). We found that the observed allele and genotype frequencies did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which suggests that the frequencies of ApoE alleles and genotypes are stable in the Swiss population from which our samples were derived. Across both groups of subjects (n = 173), we found an ApoE2 allele frequency of 0.064, an ApoE3 frequency of 0.829 and an ApoE4 frequency of 0.107. Our findings are consistent with previous reports of the distribution of ApoE polymorphism for European subjects free of any neurological disorders, and show that the different alleles of the gene coding for the apolipoprotein E are not associated with the occurrence of simple febrile seizures.