38 resultados para Acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

em Universit�� de Lausanne, Switzerland


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To report the occurrence of acute hemorrhagic retinopathy following intravitreal melphalan injection for retinoblastoma. This is a retrospective case series of 2 patients with retinoblastoma treated with intravitreal melphalan for vitreous seeding who developed acute hemorrhagic retinopathy. Patient 1 is a 6-month-old female with bilateral retinoblastoma (Group D right eye and Group B left eye) treated with 4 cycles of systemic chemotherapy and 2 intravitreal melphalan injections in each eye. Patient 2 is a 10-month-old male with unilateral Group D retinoblastoma treated with 6 cycles of systemic chemotherapy and 2 injections of intravitreal melphalan. At the 1-week follow-up after the second injection, both patients had an acute hemorrhagic retinopathy that resulted in chorioretinal toxicity with a sharp demarcation line between the normal and abnormal retina. At the last follow-up (22 and 12 months, respectively), there was total tumor control and resolution of vitreous seeding in both patients. Although intravitreal melphalan injection is effective for vitreous seeding in eyes with retinoblastoma, acute hemorrhagic retinopathy and diffuse chorioretinal atrophy is a possible complication of this treatment modality. Given the clinical findings observed in these patients, the development of this retinal toxicity most likely results from a retrohyaloid overdose. Consequently we suggest preventive measures aimed at limiting the risk of retrohyaloid injection.

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This study was designed to derive and validate a score to predict early ischemic events and major bleedings after an acute ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The derivation cohort consisted of 854 patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation included in prospective series between January 2012 and March 2014. Older age (hazard ratio 1.06 for each additional year; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.11) and severe atrial enlargement (hazard ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.87) were predictors for ischemic outcome events (stroke, transient ischemic attack, and systemic embolism) at 90 days from acute stroke. Small lesions (≤1.5 cm) were inversely correlated with both major bleeding (hazard ratio, 0.39; P=0.03) and ischemic outcome events (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-1.00). We assigned to age ≥80 years 2 points and between 70 and 79 years 1 point; ischemic index lesion >1.5 cm, 1 point; severe atrial enlargement, 1 point (ALESSA score). A logistic regression with the receiver-operating characteristic graph procedure (C statistic) showed an area under the curve of 0.697 (0.632-0.763; P=0.0001) for ischemic outcome events and 0.585 (0.493-0.678; P=0.10) for major bleedings. The validation cohort consisted of 994 patients included in prospective series between April 2014 and June 2016. Logistic regression with the receiver-operating characteristic graph procedure showed an area under the curve of 0.646 (0.529-0.763; P=0.009) for ischemic outcome events and 0.407 (0.275-0.540; P=0.14) for hemorrhagic outcome events. In acute stroke patients with atrial fibrillation, high ALESSA scores were associated with a high risk of ischemic events but not of major bleedings.

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Frail older people with multiple interacting conditions, polypharmacy, and complex care needs are particularly exposed to health care-related adverse events. Among these, anticoagulant-related thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events are particularly frequent and serious in older inpatients. The growing use of anticoagulants in this population and their substantial risk of toxicity and inefficacy have therefore become an important patient safety and public health concern worldwide. Anticoagulant-related adverse events and the quality of anticoagulation management should thus be routinely assessed to improve patient safety in vulnerable older inpatients. This project aims to develop and validate a set of outcome and process indicators based on linked administrative health data (ie, insurance claims data linked to hospital discharge data) assessing older inpatient safety related to anticoagulation in both Switzerland and France, and enabling comparisons across time and among hospitals, health territories, and countries. Geriatric patient safety indicators (GPSIs) will assess anticoagulant-related adverse events. Geriatric quality indicators (GQIs) will evaluate the management of anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of arterial or venous thromboembolism in older inpatients. GPSIs will measure cumulative incidences of thromboembolic and bleeding adverse events based on hospital discharge data linked to insurance claims data. Using linked administrative health data will improve GPSI risk adjustment on patients' conditions that are present at admission and will capture in-hospital and postdischarge adverse events. GQIs will estimate the proportion of index hospital stays resulting in recommended anticoagulation at discharge and up to various time frames based on the same electronic health data. The GPSI and GQI development and validation process will comprise 6 stages: (1) selection and specification of candidate indicators, (2) definition of administrative data-based algorithms, (3) empirical measurement of indicators using linked administrative health data, (4) validation of indicators, (5) analyses of geographic and temporal variations for reliable and valid indicators, and (6) data visualization. Study populations will consist of 166,670 Swiss and 5,902,037 French residents aged 65 years and older admitted to an acute care hospital at least once during the 2012-2014 period and insured for at least 1 year before admission and 1 year after discharge. We will extract Swiss data from the Helsana Group data warehouse and French data from the national health insurance information system (SNIIR-AM). The study has been approved by Swiss and French ethics committees and regulatory organizations for data protection. Validated GPSIs and GQIs should help support and drive quality and safety improvement in older inpatients, inform health care stakeholders, and enable international comparisons. We discuss several limitations relating to the representativeness of study populations, accuracy of administrative health data, methods used for GPSI criterion validity assessment, and potential confounding bias in comparisons based on GQIs, and we address these limitations to strengthen study feasibility and validity.

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Drugs are a rare cause of pancreatitis. Whereas some drugs are well known to induce an attack of pancreatitis, some people may be more prone to develop pancreatitis because of personal susceptibility. We describe a recurrent case of acute pancreatitis after administration of several drugs in a patient with intestinal inflammatory bowel disease that needed to be treated with subsequent antiinflammatory agents. Genetic mutation in the CFTR gene was found in the patient that led us to postulate that CFTR was a trigger for drug-induced acute pancreatitis. In conclusion, genetic analysis should be advised in case of recurrent pancreatitis in patient with intestinal inflammatory bowel disease.

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Pontine ischemia usually results in focal deficits such as hemiparesis, facial palsy, dysarthria, disorders of eye movements or vertigo. Although rarely described, involuntary abnormal movements and "convulsions" due to pontine lesions can also occur. Here we describe a 67-year-old woman with hypertension who presented with a tonic movement mimicking a versive seizure in the acute phase of bilateral pontine ischemia. Post-stroke movement disorders are well known. They are usually associated with supratentorial lesions and rarely occur in the acute phase, but "seizure-like" episodes can be seen in pontine ischemia. Awareness of this rare phenomenon is useful for the management of acute stroke patients.

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Dans la majorité des cas, les diarrhées aiguës sont bénignes et d'évolution spontanément favorable. Il faut cependant savoir reconnaître les situations pouvant mener à des complications, en l'occurrence identifier les diarrhées invasives, inflammatoires, caractérisées par la présence de fièvre, de douleurs abdominales, de ténesmes, de mucus et, ou de sang dans les selles. Celles-ci sont à distinguer des diarrhées sécrétoires, non invasives, non inflammatoires, sans fièvre, généralement aqueuses et volumineuses. En cas de doute diagnostique, l'identification de leucocytes par microscopie ou test à la lactoferrine dans les selles permet d'évoquer une gastroentérite invasive. Les indications à une antibiothérapie empirique dans l'attente du résultat de la coproculture sont la présence d'un syndrome dysentérique (T > 38°C, > 6 selles/24 heures, douleurs abdominales, diarrhées mucopurulentes), l'âge avancé, des comorbidités significatives, une immunosuppression et la présence d'une prothèse endovasculaire. In the majority of the cases, an acute diarrhea is mild and of spontaneously favorable evolution. It is however necessary to know how to recognize the situations being able to lead to complications, in particular to identify the invasive, inflammatory diarrheas, characterized by the presence of fever, abdominal pains, mucus and\or blood. The identification of leukocytes by microscopy or lactoferrine test is helpful. Empiric quinolones treatment is recommended in the presence of dysenteric syndrome (T > 38 degrees C, > 6 stods/24 h 00, abdominal pain muco-purulent diarrhea), advanced age, significant comorbidities, immunosuppression or presence of an endovascular prothesis

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Introduction: Calcific tendonitis of rotator cuff is observed on plainradiographs in 10% of adults, but remains asymptomatic in half thesecases. Sometimes, these calcifications induce acute flares withmassive inflammation similar to gout or CPPD crisis. Analgesics/anti-inflammatory medications are usually not sufficient to controlssymptoms in these situations. Local steroid infiltration with or withoutremoval of the calcific deposition with a needle aspiration may beuseful. A new approach could be IL-1 inhibitors. Indeed, basic calciumphosphate crystals are capable of stimulating the release of activeIL-1β in vitro. These crystals trigger IL-1β release, in an analogousmanner to MSU crystals in acute gout, suggesting that IL-1β blockademay be clinically useful.Case presentation: This report describes a 70-year old woman withacute rest pain of the right shoulder since 48 hours. On examination,we found massive limitations of active and passive movements. Thepatient evaluated, on the visual scale, her symptoms at 10/10 the nightand 5/10 the day. The radiography and showed a rounded, 8 mmcalcification in the subscapularis tendon. The ultrasound aspectrevealed a heterogeneous calcification partially non solid, surroundedby massive inflammation on Doppler. C-reactive protein anderythrocyte sedimentation rate were high (74 mg/ml, 54 mm/hour).The patient received subcutaneous injections of anakinra: 100 mgdaily for 3 days (D1-D3). We evaluated the patient in our consult at dayD1, D2, D3, D7, D16 and by phone at D70.This treatment rapidly relieved the inflammatory symptoms (within afew hours with no relapse). The mobility of the shoulder, the biologicsparameters improved and the size of the calcification as well thedegree of inflammation regressed on ultrasound after 3 days.Conclusion: This is the first report of a woman with an acute flareinduced by calcific tendonitis who received anakinra. IL-1 inhibitionmay be a therapeutic target in calcific tendonitis. To analyse thisresponse more precisely and elaborate definitive conclusions, aprospective pilot study is on-going in our ambulatory institute.

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At an intermediate or advanced stage, i.e. stage B or C, based on the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) may be offered as a treatment of palliative intent. We report the case of a patient suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome after TACE with drug-eluting beads loaded with doxorubicin for HCC. To our knowledge, this is the first case described where a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and where significant levels of alveolar eosinophilia and neutrophilia were evident, attributed to a pulmonary toxicity of doxorubicin following liver chemoembolization. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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In rats, neonatal treatment with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) induces several metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, which result in hyperadiposity. No data exist, however, regarding neuroendocrine, immune and metabolic responses to acute endotoxemia in the MSG-damaged rat. We studied the consequences of MSG treatment during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress. Neonatal male rats were treated with MSG or vehicle (controls, CTR) and studied at age 90 days. Pituitary, adrenal, adipo-insular axis, immune, metabolic and gonadal functions were explored before and up to 5 h after single sub-lethal i.p. injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 microg/kg). Our results showed that, during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress in MSG rats: (1) the corticotrope-adrenal, leptin, insulin and triglyceride responses were higher than in CTR rats, (2) pro-inflammatory (TNFalpha) cytokine response was impaired and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine response was normal, and (3) changes in peripheral estradiol and testosterone levels after LPS varied as in CTR rats. These data indicate that metabolic and neroendocrine-immune functions are altered in MSG-damaged rats. Our study also suggests that the enhanced corticotrope-corticoadrenal activity in MSG animals could be responsible, at least in part, for the immune and metabolic derangements characterizing hypothalamic obesity.

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Abstract Bradykinin (BK) was shown to stimulate the production of physiologically active metabolites, blood-brain barrier disruption, and brain edema. The aim of this prospective study was to measure BK concentrations in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and ischemic stroke and to correlate BK levels with the extent of cerebral edema and intracranial pressure (ICP). Blood and CSF samples of 29 patients suffering from acute cerebral lesions (TBI, 7; SAH,: 10; ICH, 8; ischemic stroke, 4) were collected for up to 8 days after insult. Seven patients with lumbar drainage were used as controls. Edema (5-point scale), ICP, and the GCS (Glasgow Coma Score) at the time of sample withdrawal were correlated with BK concentrations. Though all plasma-BK samples were not significantly elevated, CSF-BK levels of all patients were significantly elevated in overall (n=73) and early (≤72 h) measurements (n=55; 4.3±6.9 and 5.6±8.9 fmol/mL), compared to 1.2±0.7 fmol/mL of controls (p=0.05 and 0.006). Within 72 h after ictus, patients suffering from TBI (p=0.01), ICH (p=0.001), and ischemic stroke (p=0.02) showed significant increases. CSF-BK concentrations correlated with extent of edema formation (r=0.53; p<0.001) and with ICP (r=0.49; p<0.001). Our results demonstrate that acute cerebral lesions are associated with increased CSF-BK levels. Especially after TBI, subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage CSF-BK levels correlate with extent of edema evolution and ICP. BK-blocking agents may turn out to be effective remedies in brain injuries.

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RESUME DE THESEContexte de l'étudeLe but de cette étude est de comparer le drainage percutané (DP) et la chirurgie d'urgence (CU) de la vésicule biliaire (VB) pour le traitement de la cholécystite aiguë lithiasique/alithiasique dans un groupe homogène de patients gravement malades et hospitalisés aux soins intensifs (SI).Patients et méthodeEntre les années 2001 et 2007, tous les patients successivement traités par DP ou CU pour cholécystite aiguë aux SI ont été rétrospectivement analysés. Les cas ont été collectés à partir d'une base de données prospective. Le DP était effectué par voie trans-hépatique et la chirurgie par voie ouverte ou laparoscopique. L'état général des patients et la dysfonction des organes étaient évalués par deux scores validés (SAPS Π et SOFA, respectivement). L'analyse des données s'est portée sur les complications à court terme (morbidité, mortalité hospitalière) et à long terme (récurrence des symptômes) après drainage ou chirurgie en urgence.RésultatsQuarante-deux patients (âge médian 65 ans, 32-94 ans) ont été inclus dans l'étude ; 45% ont eu une CU (10 laparoscopics, 9 voies ouvertes) et 55% un DP (n=23) de la vésicule biliaire. Le DP et la CU ont eu des taux de succès respectifs de 91 et 100% pour la résolution du sepsis lié à la cholécystite aigiie. Après drainage et chirurgie de la VB, la dysfonction des organes secondaire au sepsis s'est résolue dans les 3 jours. Malgré le drainage, deux patients ont nécessité une cholécystectomie en urgence pour cholécystite gangréneuse. Le taux de conversion de la laparoscopic à la voie ouverte était de 20%. La morbidité majeure était de 0% après drainage et 21% après chirurgie en urgence (p=0.034). Finalement, la mortalité hospitalière était similaire (13% après DP vs. 16% après CU, p=1.0) et uniquement liée aux co-morbidités des patients. La récurrence des symptômes liés à la VB n'est apparue que chez des patients initialement drainés pour cholécystite lithiasique.ConclusionsChez les patients gravement malades des soins intensifs, le drainage percutané et la chirurgie en urgence de la VB sont tous deux efficaces pour la résolution d'un sepsis lié à une cholécystite aigiie. Cependant, la chirurgie d'urgence est associée à une morbidité majeure accrue et l'approche par laparoscopic n'est pas toujours réalisable. Le drainage percutané de la VB est donc une modalité de traitement valable, mais nécessite à distance de l'épisode aigu une cholécystectomie par laparoscopic, surtout après une cholécystite lithiasique.

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As a cause of small intestine occlusion, volvulus is often a consequence of a band or adhesions. Except in infants, it is rarely the primary cause of symptomatology. Between January 1976 and December 1992, 13 patients (7 women and 6 men, mean age of 56.8 years) were admitted in our department for an acute abdomen due to a spontaneous primary volvulus of the small bowel. Clinical examination and laboratory tests did not help in preoperative diagnosis. All patients underwent an explorative laparotomy. Six patients had had prior abdominal surgery but none of them presented adhesion or band. In 8 patients (62%), detorsion was sufficient. Resection of a segment of small bowel was necessary in 4 patients. Gangrenous of the entire bowel was observed in one patient who rapidly died. Two patients presented minor complications. One patient with Down syndrome died of bronchoaspiration. One patient has been reoperated on one year later for recurrence of the volvulus, and underwent a Noble procedure. We conclude that volvulus of the small bowel is a rare cause of acute abdomen that must be remembered. Early surgery is mandatory to reduce the risk of gangrene, which is known to double the mortality. Laparoscopy will be helpful in early diagnosis and therapy.

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In this retrospective pragmatic study, we define the necessary conditions that allow outpatient low dose intravenous neuroleptization, when hospitalization should otherwise be required. Intravenous neuroleptization is infrequently used in the outpatient treatment of acute psychotic decompensation. Rapid tranquilization with high dosage neuroleptics is controversial, and has a high risk of side effects. The indications for and potential advantages of this method in the perspective of a long-term ambulatory treatment are discussed by comparing a group of outpatients treated with infusions to a group of hospitalized patients. The method offers a satisfactory alternative to hospitalization for subjects who are not in imminent danger (current GAF rating between 20 and 40) and whose normal functioning is good (past year GAF rating = 70). Previous repeated hospitalizations favor the choice of hospitalization over infusion. Its potential advantages are the rapid evolution of the condition, with controlled regression but without psychosocial withdrawal, and an improvement in the patient's attitude towards treatment.

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Nitric oxide (NO) is crucial for the microvascular homeostasis, but its role played in the microvascular alterations during sepsis remains controversial. We investigated NO-dependent vasodilation in the skin microcirculation and plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a potent endogenous inhibitor of the NO synthases, in a human model of sepsis. In this double-blind, randomized, crossover study, microvascular NO-dependent (local thermal hyperemia) and NO-independent vasodilation (post-occlusive reactive hyperemia) assessed by laser Doppler imaging, plasma levels of ADMA, and l-arginine were measured in seven healthy obese volunteers, immediately before and 4 h after either a i.v. bolus injection of Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS; 2 ng/kg) or normal saline (placebo) on two different visits at least 2 weeks apart. LPS caused the expected systemic effects, including increases in heart rate (+43%, P < 0.001), cardiac output (+16%, P < 0.01), and rectal temperature (+1.4°C, P < 0.001), without change in arterial blood pressure. LPS affected neither baseline skin blood flow nor post-occlusive reactive hyperemia but decreased the NO-dependent local thermal hyperemia response, l-arginine, and, to a lesser extent, ADMA plasma levels. The changes in NO-dependent vasodilation were not correlated with the corresponding changes in the plasma levels of ADMA, l-arginine, or the l-arginine/ADMA ratio. Our results show for the first time that experimental endotoxemia in humans causes a specific decrease in endothelial NO-dependent vasodilation in the microcirculation, which cannot be explained by a change in ADMA levels. Microvascular NO deficiency might be responsible for the heterogeneity of tissue perfusion observed in sepsis and could be a therapeutic target.

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Purpose: Emergency room reading performances have been a point of interest in recent studies comparing radiologists to other physician groups. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the reading performances of radiologists and surgeons in an emergency room setting of non-traumatic abdominal CTs. Methods and materials: A total of ten readers representing four groups participated in this study: three senior radiologists and visceral surgeons, respectively, and two junior radiologists and surgeons, respectively. Each observer blindedly evaluated a total of 150 multi-slice acute abdominal CTs. CTs were chosen representing established proportions of acute abdomen pathologies in a Level I trauma centre from 2003 to 2005. Each answer was interpretated as right or wrong regarding pathology location, diagnosis and need for operation. Gold standard was the intraoperative result, and the clinical patient follow-up for non-operated patients. Significance was assumed at a p <.05 level. Results: Senior radiologists had a mean score of 2.38 ± 1.14, junior radiologists a score of 2.34 ± 1.14, whereas senior surgeons scored 2.07 ± 1.30 and junior surgeons 1.62 ± 1.42. No significant difference was found between the two radiologist groups, but results were significantly better for senior surgeons as compared to junior surgeons and better for the two radiologist groups as compared to each of the surgeon groups (all p <.05). Conclusion: Abdominal CT reading in an acute abdomen setting should continue to rely on an evaluation by a radiologist, whether senior or junior. Satisfying reading results can be achieved by senior visceral surgeons, but junior surgeons need more experience for a good reading performance.