47 resultados para genotypes

em Biblioteca Digital da Produ����o Intelectual da Universidade de S��o Paulo (BDPI/USP)


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BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes resistant to reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) predominate in certain urban communities, suggesting that this phenotype influences disease transmission. OBJECTIVE: To compare different M. tuberculosis genotypes for resistance to RNI generated in vitro. DESIGN: We genotyped 420 M. tuberculosis isolates from a neighborhood in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and analyzed them for susceptibility to RNI generated in acidified sodium nitrite (ASN) solution. RESULTS: Seventy-one (43%) of 167 recent-infection strains and 68 (43%) of 158 endogenous infection strains showed moderate- to high-level ASN resistance. CONCLUSION: ASN resistance of M. tuberculosis is not necessarily a determining factor for enhanced transmission.

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The aim of this work was to analyse C4 genotypes, C4 protein levels, phenotypes and genotypes in patients with the classical form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Fifty-four patients from 46 families (36 female, 18 male; mean age 10.8 years) with different clinical manifestations (31 salt-wasting; 23 simple-virilizing) were studied. Taq I Southern blotting was used to perform molecular analysis of the C4/CYP21 gene cluster and the genotypes were defined according to gene organization within RCCX modules. Serum C4 isotypes were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results revealed 12 different haplotypes of the C4/CYP21 gene cluster. Total functional activity of the classical pathway (CH50) was reduced in individuals carrying different genotypes because of low C4 concentrations (43% of all patients) to complete or partial C4 allotype deficiency. Thirteen of 54 patients presented recurrent infections affecting the respiratory and/or the urinary tracts, none of them with severe infections. Low C4A or C4B correlated well with RCCX monomodular gene organization, but no association between C4 haplotypes and recurrent infections or autoimmunity was observed. Considering this redundant gene cluster, C4 seems to be a well-protected gene segment along the evolutionary process.

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Teixeira SRL, Mattarazo F, Feres M, Figueiredo LC, de Faveri M, Simionato MRL, Mayer MPA. Quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis and fimA genotypes in smoker chronic periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 2009; 36: 482-487. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2009.01411.x. Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes were associated with virulence factors in vitro, but little evidence of an association with disease severity were shown in humans. We aimed to correlate levels of P. gingivalis fimA genotypes II and IV and probing depth in smoker-chronic periodontitis subjects. One hundred and sixty eight subgingival samples of 20 smokers non-treated chronic periodontitis subjects obtained from sites with different probing depths [shallow (<= 3 mm), intermediate (4-6 mm), deep (>= 7 mm)] were analysed by real-time PCR for P. gingivalis and genotypes fimA II and IV. P. gingivalis and fimA IV were detected in all subjects, whereas fimA II was detected in 18 subjects (90%). One hundred and fifty two sites (90.5%) harboured P. gingivalis. Genotypes II and IV were detected in 28% and 69.6% of sites, respectively. The proportions of genotypes II and IV in relation to P. gingivalis levels were similar in shallow, intermediate and deep probing sites (2.4%, 4.6%, 1.4% for genotype II and 15.5%, 17.7%, 11.7% for genotype IV, respectively), indicating that other non-tested genotypes were more abundant. Increased levels of genotype IV were associated with increasing probing depth, but not of genotype II. The data suggested an association between P. gingivalis genotype fimA IV and disease severity in smoker-chronic periodontitis subjects.

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In this study, we describe the first survey in Thailand of Trypanosoma theileri, a widespread and prevalent parasite of cattle that is transmitted by tabanid flies. Investigation of 210 bovine blood samples of Thai cattle from six farms by hematocrit centrifuge technique (HCT) revealed 14 samples with trypanosomes morphologically compatible to T. theileri. Additional animals were positive for T. theileri by PCR based on the Cathepsin L-like sequence (TthCATL-PCR) despite negative by HCT, indicating cryptic infections. Results revealed a prevalence of 26 +/- 15% (95% CI) of T. theileri infection. Additionally, 12 samples positive for T. theileri were detected in cattle from other 11 farms. From a total of 30 blood samples positive by HCT and/or PCR from 17 farms, seven were characterized to evaluate the genetic polymorphism of T. theileri through sequence analysis of PCR-amplified CATL DNA sequences. All CATL sequences of T. theileri from Thai cattle clustered with sequences of the previously described phylogenetic lineages TthI and TthII, supporting only two major lineages of T. theileri in cattle around the world. However, 11 of the 29 CATL sequences analyzed showed to be different, disclosing an unexpectedly large polymorphic genetic repertoire, with multiple genotypes of T. theileri not previously described in other countries circulating in Thai cattle. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Salivarian trypanosomes pose a substantial threat to livestock, but their full diversity is not known. To survey trypanosomes carried by tsetse in Tanzania, DNA samples from infected proboscides of Glossina pallidipes and G. swynnertoni were identified using fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB), which discriminates species by size polymorphisms in multiple regions of the ribosomal RNA locus. FELLB identified the trypanosomes in 65 of 105 (61.9%) infected proboscides, revealing 9 mixed infections. Of 7 different FFLB profiles, 2 were similar but not identical to reference West African Trypanosoma vivax; 5 other profiles belonged to known species also identified in fly midguts. Phylogenetic analysis of the glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase gene revealed that the Tanzanian T. vivax samples fell into 2 distinct groups, both outside the main chide of African and South American T. vivax. These new T. vivax genotypes were common and widespread in tsetse in Tanzania. The T. brucei-like trypanosome previously described from tsetse midguts was also found in 2 proboscides, demonstrating a salivarian transmission route. Investigation of mammalian host range and pathogenicity will reveal the importance of these new trypanosomes for the epidemiology and control of animal trypanosomiasis in East Africa.

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Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri from cattle and trypanosomes of other artiodactyls form a clade of closely related species in analyses using ribosomal sequences. Analysis of polymorphic sequences of a larger number of trypanosomes from broader geographical origins is required to evaluate the Clustering of isolates as suggested by previous studies. Here, we determined the sequences of the spliced leader (SL) genes of 21 isolates from cattle and 2 from water buffalo from distant regions of Brazil. Analysis of SL gene repeats revealed that the 5S rRNA gene is inserted within the intergenic region. Phylogeographical patterns inferred using SL sequences showed at least 5 major genotypes of T. theileri distributed in 2 strongly divergent lineages. Lineage TthI comprises genotypes IA and IB from buffalo and cattle, respectively, from the Southeast and Central regions, whereas genotype IC is restricted to cattle from the Southern region. Lineage Tth II includes cattle genotypes IIA, which is restricted to the North and Northeast, and IIB, found in the Centre, West, North and Northeast. PCR-RFLP of SL genes revealed valuable markers for genotyping T. theileri. The results of this study emphasize the genetic complexity and corroborate the geographical structuring of T. theileri genotypes found in cattle.

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Parasites of wild primates are important for conservation biology and human health due to their high potential to infect humans. In the Amazon region, non-human primates are commonly infected by Trypanosoma cruzi and T rangeli, which are also infective to man and several mammals. This is the first survey of trypanosomiasis in a critically endangered species of tamarin, Saguinus bicolor (Callitrichidae), from the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. Of the 96 free-ranging specimens of S. bicolor examined 45 (46.8%) yielded blood smears positive for trypanosomes. T rangeli was detected in blood smears of 38 monkeys (39.6%) whereas T. cruzi was never detected. Seven animals (7.3%) presented trypanosomes of the subgenus Megatrypanum. Hemocultures detected 84 positive tamarins (87.5%). Seventy-two of 84 (85.7%) were morphologically diagnosed as T rangeli and 3 (3.1%) as T. cruzi. Nine tamarins (9.4%) yielded mixed cultures of these two species, which after successive passages generated six cultures exclusively of T. cruzi and two of T rangeli, with only one culture remaining mixed. Of the 72 cultures positive for T rangeli, 62 remained as established cultures and were genotyped: 8 were assigned to phylogenetic lineage A (12.9%) and 54 to lineage B (87.1%). Ten established cultures of T. cruzi were genotyped as TCI lineage (100%). Transmission of both trypanosome species, their potential risk to this endangered species and the role of wild primates as reservoirs for trypanosomes infective to humans are discussed. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Nucleotide sequences of two regions of the genomes of 11 yellow fever virus (YFV) samples isolated from monkeys or humans with symptomatic yellow fever (YF) in Brazil in 2000,2004, and 2008 were determined with the objective of establishing the genotypes and studying the genetic variation. Results of the Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed that sequences generated from strains from 2004 and 2008 formed a new subclade within the clade 1 of the South American genotype I. The new subgroup is here designated as 1E. Sequences of YFV strains recovered in 2000 belong to the subclade 1D, which comprises previously characterized YFV strains from Brazil. Molecular dating analyses suggested that the new subclade 1E started diversifying from 1D about 1975 and that the most recent 2004-2008 isolates arose about 1985. J. Med. Virol. 82:175-185, 2010. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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This multicentric population-based study in Brazil is the first national effort to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and risk factors in the capital cities of the Northeast. Central-West, and Federal Districts (2004-2005). Random multistage cluster sampling was used to select persons 13-69 years of age. Markers for HBV were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The HBV genotypes were determined by sequencing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Multivariate analyses and simple catalytic model were performed. Overall. 7,881 persons were inculded < 70% were not vaccinated. Positivity for HBsAg was less than 1% among non-vaccinated persons and genotypes A, D, and F co-circulated. The incidence of infection increased with age with similar force of infection in all regions. Males and persons having initiated sexual activity were associated with HBV infection in the two settings: healthcare jobs and prior hospitalization were risk factors in the Federal District. Our survey classified these regions as areas with HBV endemicity and highlighted the risk factors differences among the settings.

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Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan that parasitizes humans and other mammals and causes giardiasis. Although its isolates have been divided into seven assemblages, named A to G, only A and B have been detected in human faeces. Assemblage A isolates are commonly divided into two genotypes, AI and AII. Even though information about the presence of this protozoan in water and sewage is available in Brazil, it is important to verify the distribution of different assemblages that might be present, which can only be done by genotyping techniques. A total of 24 raw and treated sewage, surface and spring water samples were collected, concentrated and purified. DNA was extracted, and a nested PCR was used to amplify an 890 bp fragment of the gdh gene of G. duodenalis, which codes for glutamate dehydrogenase. Positive samples were cloned and sequenced. Ten out of 24 (41.6%) samples were confirmed to be positive for G. duodenalis by sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis grouped most sequences with G. duodenalis genotype AII from GenBank. Only two raw sewage samples presented sequences assigned to assemblage B. In one of these samples genotype AII was also detected. As these assemblages/genotypes are commonly associated to human giardiasis, the contact with these matrices represents risk for public health.

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We investigated the toxic effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) combined with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on Prototheca zopfii from bovine mastitis. P. zopfii isolates were identified and characterized by morpho-physiological parameters; presences of P. zopfii genotype 2 were also investigated. Subsequently, P. zopfii was incubated in the absence (control) or presence of IAA/HRP and examined for: (i) cell viability; (ii) colonies number formation; (iii) antioxidant enzyme activity; and (iv) DNA integrity. Significance of differences was calculated using ANOVA and Tukey`s test (P a parts per thousand currency sign 0.05). As evidenced by Trypan blue exclusion and colony formation in Sabouraud dextrose agar, IAA/HRP addition to the culture reduced respective P. zopfii viability and P. zopfii colony formation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. IAA/HRP specifically reduced cell viability in 10, 15, 20, 25, and 32% after 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h of incubation, respectively, compared with the control at the same time. The number of colony formation was inhibited (45, 82, and 88%) by IAA/HRP after 4, 6, and 9 h of incubation, respectively, compared with the control at the same time. In addition, P. zopfii antioxidant activity increased measurably in the presence of IAA/HRP (6 h); superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase increased by 90, 120, 150% and 3.4 times, compared with the controls. IAA/HRP did not appear to effect P. zopfii DNA integrity when examined by electrophoresis. In conclusion, IAA/HRP appears to function as a microbicidal mechanism on P. zopfii genotype 2 from bovine mastitis.

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The aim of this study was to analyze LEP and DGAT1 gene polymorphisms in 3 Nelore lines selected for growth and to evaluate their effects on growth and carcass traits. Traits analyzed were birth, weaning, and yearling weight, rump height, LM area, backfat thickness, and rump fat thickness obtained by ultrasound. Two SNP in the LEP gene [LEP 1620(A/G) and LEP 305(T/C)] and the K232A mutation in the DGAT1 gene were analyzed. The sample consisted of 357 Nelore heifers from 2 lines selected for yearling weight and a control line, established in 1980, at the Estacao Experimental de Zootecnia de Sertaozinho (Sertaozinho, Brazil). Three genotypes were obtained for each marker. Differences in allele frequencies among the 3 lines were only observed for the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, with the frequency of the A allele being greater in the control line than in the selected lines. The DGAT1 K232A mutation was associated only with rump height, whereas LEP 1620(A/G) was associated with weaning weight and LEP 305(T/C) with birth weight and backfat thickness. However, more studies, with larger data sets, are necessary before these makers can be used for marker-assisted selection.

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Background: ABCA1 plays an important role in HDL metabolism. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA1 gene were associated with variation in plasina HDL-c. Methods: The effect of the ABCA1 SNPs C-14T, R219K and of a novel variant C-105T on serum lipids was investigated in 367 unrelated Brazilian individuals (224 hypercholesterolemic and 143 normolipidemic). The relation between ABCA1 SNPs and the lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4 weeks) was also evaluated in 141 hypercholesterolemic (HC) individuals. The polymorphisms were detected by PCRR_FLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results: Linkage disequilibrium was found between the SNPs C-105T and C-14T in the HC group. HC individuals carrying - 105CT/TT genotypes had higher serum HDL-c and lower triglyceride and VLDL-c concentrations as well as lower TG/HDL-c ratio compared to the -105CC carriers (p<0.05). The R219K SNP was associated with reduced serum triglyceride, VLDL-c and TG/HDL-c ratio in the HC group (p<0.05), and with an increased serum apoAI in NL individuals. The effects of ABCA1 SNPs on basal serum lipids of HC individuals were not modified by atorvastatin treatment. Conclusions: The ABCA1 SNPs R219K and C-105T were associated with a less atherogenic lipid profile but not with the lowering-cholesterol response to atorvastatin in a Brazilian population. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Background: The SR-BI is a key component on the cholesterol metabolism. Polymorphisms in the SR-BI gene (SCARB1) were related with variations on plasma lipoprotein profile and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We tested the relationship of 3 SCARB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with hypercholesterolemia in a Brazilian population and whether these variants can influence lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin. Methods: c.4G>A, c.726+54C>T and c.1050C>T SNPs and serum concentrations of lipid and apolipoproteins were evaluated in 147 hypercholesterolemic (HC) and 185 normolipidemic (NL) unrelated Brazilian subjects. HC patients were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4 weeks). Results: Frequencies of SCARB1 polymorphisms were similar between the HC and NL groups (p>0.05). The T allele for c.726+54C>T was associated with higher LDL-c in NL and with higher apoB and apoB/apoAI in HC (p<0.05). HC individuals carrying c.1050C allele carriers (CC and CT genotypes) had lower change of total cholesterol, LDL-c, apoB and apoB/apoAI ratio (p<0.05) than the TT genotype carriers in response to atorvastatin. Conclusion: The SCARB1 polymorphisms are related with variations in serum lipids in the Brazilian population and c.1050C>T SNP is associated with lipid-lowering atorvastatin response. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Background. Rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Knowledge of rotavirus genotypes is important for vaccination strategies. Methods. During 2005-2006, rotavirus surveillance studies were conducted in Sao Paulo, Salvador, Goiania, and Porto Alegre, Brazil. Stool samples were collected from children <5 years of age who had diarrhea and were screened by the Rotaclone Enzyme Immunoassay for the presence of rotavirus. Confirmed rotavirus-positive samples were characterized for P and G genotypes by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results. A total of 510 stool samples were collected. Of these, 221 (43.3%) were positive for rotavirus. Overall, G9 was the predominant G type, followed by G2, and G1; P[4] and P[8] were the predominant P types. The most frequent G/P genotype combination detected was G2P[4], followed by G9P[8], G9P[4], and G1P[8]. G2P[4] was the predominant type in Goiania and Salvador; G9P[8] and G1P[8] were predominant in Sao Paulo and Porto Alegre, respectively. Conclusions. The prevalence, seasonality, and genotype distribution of rotavirus infection varied in different regions in Brazil. With immunization programs, continuous monitoring of rotavirus types is important to detect novel and emerging strains.