35 resultados para Acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

em Biblioteca Digital da Produ����o Intelectual da Universidade de S��o Paulo (BDPI/USP)


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Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a frequent respiratory disturbance in preterm newborns. Preceding investigations evaluated chronic physiotherapy effects on newborns with different lung diseases; however, no study analyzed acute physiotherapy treatment on premature newborns with ARDS. In this study we aimed to evaluate the acute effects of chest and motor physiotherapy treatment on hemodynamic variables in preterm newborns with ARDS. Methods: We evaluated heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic (SAP), mean (MAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), temperature and oxygen saturation (SO(2)%) in 44 newborns with ARDS. We compared all variables between six periods in one day: before first physiotherapy treatment vs. after first physiotherapy treatment vs. before second physiotherapy treatment vs. after second physiotherapy treatment vs. before third physiotherapy treatment vs. after third physiotherapy treatment. Variables were measured 2 minutes before and 5 minutes after each physiotherapy session. We applied Anova one way followed by post hoc Bonferroni test. Results: HR (147.5 +/- 9.5 bpm vs. 137.7 +/- 9.3 bpm; p<0.001), RR (45.5 +/- 8.7cpm vs. 41.5 +/- 6.7 cpm; p=0.001), SAP (70.3 +/- 10.4 mmHg vs. 60.1 +/- 7.1 mmHg; p=0.001) and MAP (55.7 +/- 10 mmHg vs. 46 +/- 6.6 mmHg; p=0.001) were significantly reduced after the third physiotherapy treatment compared to before the first session. There were no significant changes regarding temperature, DAP and SO(2) %. Conclusion: Chest and motor physiotherapy acutely improves HR, RR, SAP, MAP and SO(2) % in newborns with ARDS.

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Background and objectives: There have been few studies investigating acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients infected with the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with AKI in H1N1-infected patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was a study of 47 consecutive critically ill adult patients with reverse transcriptase-PCR-confirmed H1N1 infection in Brazil. Outcome measures were AKI (as defined by the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage renal failure [RIFLE] criteria) and in-hospital death. Results: AKI was identified in 25 (53%) of the 47 H1N1-infected patients. AKI was associated with vasopressor use, mechanical ventilation, high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, and severe acidosis as well as with higher levels of C-reactive protein and lactic dehydrogenase upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission. A nephrology consultation was requested for 16 patients (64%), and 8 (50%) required dialysis. At ICU admission, 7 (15%) of the 25 AKI patients had not yet progressed to AKI. However, by 72 hours after ICU admission, no difference in RIFLE score was found between AKI survivors and nonsurvivors. Of the 47 patients, 9 (19%) died, all with AKI. Mortality was associated with mechanical ventilation, vasopressor use, dialysis, high APACHE II score, high bilirubin levels, and a low RIFLE score at ICU admission. Conclusions: Among critically ill H1N1-infected patients, the incidence of AKI is high. In such patients, AKI is mainly attributable to shock. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 5: 1916-1921, 2010. doi: 10.2215/CJN.00840110

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Background. Rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Knowledge of rotavirus genotypes is important for vaccination strategies. Methods. During 2005-2006, rotavirus surveillance studies were conducted in Sao Paulo, Salvador, Goiania, and Porto Alegre, Brazil. Stool samples were collected from children <5 years of age who had diarrhea and were screened by the Rotaclone Enzyme Immunoassay for the presence of rotavirus. Confirmed rotavirus-positive samples were characterized for P and G genotypes by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results. A total of 510 stool samples were collected. Of these, 221 (43.3%) were positive for rotavirus. Overall, G9 was the predominant G type, followed by G2, and G1; P[4] and P[8] were the predominant P types. The most frequent G/P genotype combination detected was G2P[4], followed by G9P[8], G9P[4], and G1P[8]. G2P[4] was the predominant type in Goiania and Salvador; G9P[8] and G1P[8] were predominant in Sao Paulo and Porto Alegre, respectively. Conclusions. The prevalence, seasonality, and genotype distribution of rotavirus infection varied in different regions in Brazil. With immunization programs, continuous monitoring of rotavirus types is important to detect novel and emerging strains.

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Purpose of review Description of the progress about the vascular effects promoted by thyroid hormones. Recent findings Over the past few years, a number of studies have shown that in addition to genomic effects on blood vessels, thyroid hormones exert extranuclear nongenomic effects on vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelium. These nongenomic effects occur rapidly and do not involve thyroid hormone response elements-mediated transcriptional events. In this context, the genomic and nongenomic events promoted by thyroid hormones act in concert to control the vascular hemodynamic and regulate the cardiovascular function. Summary Considering the antiatherogenic property of thyroid hormones and the rapid effects produced by this molecule as a vasodilator, including that in the coronary bed, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in its action may contribute to the development of drugs that can be clinically used to increase the known benefits promoted by thyroid hormones in cardiovascular physiology.

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The Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) is an epileptic-prone strain developed by genetic selection from a Wistar progenitor based on the pattern of behavioral response to sound stimulation. Chronic acoustic stimulation protocols of WARs (audiogenic kindling) generate limbic epileptogenesis, confirmed by ictal semiology, amygdale, and hippocampal EEG, accompanied by hippocampal and amygdala cell loss, as well as neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG). In an effort to identify genes involved in molecular mechanisms underlying epileptic process, we used suppression-subtractive hybridization to construct normalized cDNA library enriched for transcripts expressed in the hippocampus of WARs. The most represented gene among the 133 clones sequenced was the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit II (GluR2), a member of the a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleopropionic acid (AMPA) receptor. Although semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis shows that the hippocampal levels of the GluR2 subunits do not differ between naive WARs and their Wistar counterparts, we observed that the expression of the transcript encoding the splice-variant GluR2-flip is increased in the hippocampus of WARs submitted to both acute and kindled audiogenic seizures. Moreover, using in situ hybridization, we verified upregulation of GluR2-flip mainly in the CA1 region, among the hippocampal subfields of audiogenic kindled WARs. Our findings on differential upregulation of GluR2-flip isoform in the hippocampus of WARs displaying audiogenic seizures is original and agree with and extend previous immunohistochemical for GluR2 data obtained in the Chinese P77PMC audiogenic rat strain, reinforcing the association of limbic AMPA alterations with epileptic seizures. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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An acute enteritis is commonly followed by intestinal neuromuscular dysfunction, including prolonged hyperexcitability of enteric neurons. Such motility disorders are associated with maintained increases in immune cells adjacent to enteric ganglia and in the mucosa. However, whether the commonly used animal model, trinitrobenzene sulphonate (TNBS)-induced enteritis, causes histological and immune cell changes similar to human enteric neuropathies is not clear. We have made a detailed study of the mucosal damage and repair and immune cell invasion following intralumenal administration of TNBS. Intestines from untreated, sham-operated and TNBS-treated animals were examined at 3 h to 56 days. At 3 h, the mucosal surface was completely ablated, by 6 h an epithelial covering was substantially restored and by 1 day there was full re-epithelialisation. The lumenal epithelium developed from a squamous cell covering to a fully differentiated columnar epithelium with mature villi at about 7 days. Prominent phagocytic activity of enterocytes occurred at 1-7 days. A surge of eosinophils and T lymphocytes associated with the enteric nerve ganglia occurred at 3 h to 3 days. However, elevated immune cell numbers occurred in the lamina propria of the mucosa until 56 days, when eosinophils were still three times normal. We conclude that the disruption of the mucosal surface that causes TNBS-induced ileitis is brief, a little more than 6 h, and causes a transient immune cell surge adjacent to enteric ganglia. This is much briefer than the enteric neuropathy that ensues. Ongoing mucosal inflammatory reaction may contribute to the persistence of enteric neuropathy.

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Our aim was to evaluate the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on early cardiac arrhythmias after myocardial infarction (MI) and the impact on survival. Male Wistar rats received repeated doses of 50 mu g/kg G-CSF (MI-GCSF group) or vehicle (MI group) at 7, 3, and 1 days before surgery. MI was induced by permanent occlusion of left corollary artery. The electrocardiogram was obtained before occlusion and then for 30 minutes after surgery. Events and duration of ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed. The levels of connexin43 (Cx43) were measured by Western blot immediately before MI production. Survival was significantly increased in MI-GCSF pretreated group (74% versus 52.0% MI. P < 0.05). G-CSF pretreatment also significantly reduced the ventricular premature beats when compared with the untreated-MI group (201 +/- 47 versus 679 +/- 117, P < 0.05). The number and the duration of ventricular tachycardia were smaller in the MI-G-CSF group, as well as the number of ventricular fibrillation episodes (10% versus 69% in NIL P < 0.05). Cx43 levels were significantly increased by G-CSF treatment (1.27 +/- 0.13 versus 0.86 +/- 0.11; P < 0.05). The MI size 24 hours after occlusion was reduced by G-CSF pretreatment (36 +/- 3% versus 44 +/- 2% of left ventricle in MI group; P < 0.05). The increase of Cx43 expression in the heart may explain the reduced incidence in ventricular arrhythmias in the early phases after coronary artery occlusion in rats, thus increasing survival after MI.

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Serrano-Nascimento C, Calil-Silveira J, Nunes MT. Posttranscriptional regulation of sodium-iodide symporter mRNA expression in the rat thyroid gland by acute iodide administration. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 298: C893-C899, 2010. First published January 27, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00224.2009.-Iodide is an important regulator of thyroid activity. Its excess elicits the Wolff-Chaikoff effect, characterized by an acute suppression of thyroid hormone synthesis, which has been ascribed to serum TSH reduction or TGF-beta increase and production of iodolipids in the thyroid. These alterations take hours/days to occur, contrasting with the promptness of Wolff-Chaikoff effect. We investigated whether acute iodide administration could trigger events that precede those changes, such as reduction of sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) mRNA abundance and adenylation, and if perchlorate treatment could counteract them. Rats subjected or not to methylmercaptoimidazole treatment (0.03%) received NaI (2,000 mu g/0.5 ml saline) or saline intraperitoneally and were killed 30 min up to 24 h later. Another set of animals was treated with iodide and perchlorate, in equimolar doses. NIS mRNA content was evaluated by Northern blotting and real-time PCR, and NIS mRNA poly(A) tail length by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-poly(A) test (RACE-PAT). We observed that NIS mRNA abundance and poly(A) tail length were significantly reduced in all periods of iodide treatment. Perchlorate reversed these effects, indicating that iodide was the agent that triggered the modifications observed. Since the poly(A) tail length of mRNAs is directly associated with their stability and translation efficiency, we can assume that the rapid decay of NIS mRNA abundance observed was due to a reduction of its stability, a condition in which its translation could be impaired. Our data show for the first time that iodide regulates NIS mRNA expression at posttranscriptional level, providing a new mechanism by which iodide exerts its autoregulatory effect on thyroid.

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Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exhaustive exercise on proteins associated with muscle damage and regeneration, including IL-2, IL-4 and MyoD, in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles and mesenteric (MEAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissues (RPAT). Methods: Rats were killed by decapitation immediately (E0 group, n = 6), 2 (E2 group, n = 6) or 6 (E6 group, n = 6) hours after the exhaustion protocol, which consisted of running on a treadmill at approximately 70% of VO(2max) for fifty minutes and then at an elevated rate that increased at one m/min every minute, until exhaustion. Results: The control group (C group, n = 6) was not subjected to exercise. IL-2 protein expression increased at E0 in the soleus and EDL; at E2, this cytokine returned to control levels in both tissues. In the soleus, IL-2 protein expression was lower than that in the control at E6. IL-4 protein levels increased in EDL at E6, but the opposite result was observed in the soleus. MyoD expression increased at E6 in EDL. Conclusion: Exhaustive exercise was unable to modify IL-2 and IL-4 levels in MEAT and RPAT. The results show that exhaustive exercise has different effects depending on which muscle is analysed.

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Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may cause acute systemic and lung inflammation. Here, we revisited the role of TNF-alpha in an intestinal I/R model in mice, showing that this cytokine is not required for the local and remote inflammatory response upon intestinal I/R injury using neutralizing TNF-alpha antibodies and TNF ligand-deficient mice. We demonstrate increased neutrophil recruitment in the lung as assessed by myeloperoxidase activity and augmented IL-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and KC levels, whereas TNF-alpha levels in serum were not increased and only minimally elevated in intestine and lung upon intestinal I/R injury. Importantly, TNF-alpha antibody neutralization neither diminished neutrophil recruitment nor any of the cytokines and chemokines evaluated. In addition, the inflammatory response was not abrogated in TNF and TNF receptors 1 and 2-deficient mice. However, in view of the damage on the intestinal barrier upon intestinal I/R with systemic bacterial translocation, we asked whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation is driving the inflammatory response. In fact, the inflammatory lung response is dramatically reduced in TLR2/4-deficient mice, confirming an important role of TLR receptor signaling causing the inflammatory lung response. In conclusion, endogenous TNF-alpha is not or minimally elevated and plays no role as a mediator for the inflammatory response upon ischemic tissue injury. By contrast, TLR2/4 signaling induces an orchestrated cytokine/chemokine response leading to local and remote pulmonary inflammation, and therefore disruption of TLR signaling may represent an alternative therapeutic target.

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Acute lung injury following intestinal I/R depends on neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions and on cytokines drained from the gut through the lymph. Among the mediators generated during I/R, increased serum levels of IL-6 and NO are also found and might be involved in acute lung injury. Once intestinal ischemia itself may be a factor of tissue injury, in this study, we investigated the presence of IL-6 in lymph after intestinal ischemia and its effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) detachment. The involvement of NO on the increase of lung and intestinal microvascular permeability and the lymph effects on HUVEC detachment were also studied. Upon anesthesia, male Wistar rats were subjected to occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery during 45 min, followed by 2-h intestinal reperfusion. Rats were treated with the nonselective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME (N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) or with the selective inhibitor of iNOS aminoguanidine 1 h before superior mesenteric artery occlusion. Whereas treatment with L-NAME during ischemia increased both IL-6 levels in lymph and lung microvascular permeability, aminoguanidine restored the augmented intestinal plasma extravasation due to ischemia and did not induce IL-6 in lymph. On the other hand, IL-6 and lymph of intestinal I/R detached the HUVECs, whereas lymph of ischemic rats upon L-NAME treatment when incubated with anti-IL-6 prevented HUVEC detachment. It is shown that the intestinal ischemia itself is sufficient to increase intestinal microvascular permeability with involvement of iNOS activation. Intestinal ischemia and absence of constitutive NOS activity leading to additional intestinal stress both cause release of IL-6 and increase of lung microvascular permeability. Because anti-IL-6 prevented the endothelial cell injury caused by lymph at the ischemia period, the lymph-borne IL-6 might be involved with endothelial cell activation. At the reperfusion period, this cytokine does not seem to be modulated by NO.

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Background and aims Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis may recur months or years after the primary infection. Rupture of dormant cysts in the retina is the accepted hypothesis to explain recurrence. Here, the authors present evidence supporting the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in the peripheral blood of immunocompetent patients. Methods Direct observation by light microscopy and by immunofluorescence assay was performed, and results were confirmed by PCR amplification of parasite DNA. Results The authors studied 20 patients from Erechim, Brazil, including acute infected patients, patients with recurrent active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, patients with old toxoplasmic retinal scars, and patients with circulating IgG antibodies against T gondii and absence of ocular lesions. Blood samples were analysed, and T gondii was found in the blood of acutely and chronically infected patients regardless of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Conclusions The results indicate that the parasite may circulate in the blood of immunocompetent individuals and that parasitaemia could be associated with the reactivation of the ocular disease.

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important clinical syndrome characterized by abnormalities in the hydroelectrolytic balance. Because of high rates of morbidity and mortality (from 15% to 60%) associated with AKI, the study of its pathophysiology is critical in searching for clinical targets and therapeutic strategies. Severe sepsis is the major cause of AKI. The host response to sepsis involves an inflammatory response, whereby the pathogen is initially sensed by innate immune receptors (pattern recognition receptors [PRRs]). When it persists, this immune response leads to secretion of proinflammatory products that induce organ dysfunction such as renal failure and consequently increased mortality. Moreover, the injured tissue releases molecules resulting from extracellular matrix degradation or dying cells that function as alarmines, which are recognized by PRR in the absence of pathogens in a second wave of injury. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are the best characterized PRRs. They are expressed in many cell types and throughout the nephron. Their activation leads to translocation of nuclear factors and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. TLRs` signaling primes the cells for a robust inflammatory response dependent on NLRs; the interaction of TLRs and NLRs gives rise to the multiprotein complex known as the inflammasome, which in turn activates secretion of mature interleukin 1 beta and interleukin 18. Experimental data show that innate immune receptors, the inflammasome components, and proinflammatory cytokines play crucial roles not only in sepsis, but also in organ-induced dysfunction, especially in the kidneys. In this review, we discuss the significance of the innate immune receptors in the development of acute renal injury secondary to sepsis.

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One of the early phases that lead to fibrosis progression is inflammation. Once this stage is resolved, fibrosis might be prevented. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) are emerging as a new therapy for several pathologies, including autoimmune diseases, because they enact immunosuppression. In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of BMMC administration in a model of kidney fibrosis induced by an acute injury. C57Bl6 mice were subjected to unilateral severe ischemia by clamping the left renal pedicle for 1 h. BMMCs were isolated from femurs and tibia, and after 6 h of reperfusion, 1 x 10(6) cells were administrated intraperitoneally. At 24 h after surgery, treated animals showed a significant decrease in creatinine and urea levels when compared with untreated animals. Different administration routes were tested. Moreover, interferon (IFN) receptor knockout BMMCs were used, as this receptor is necessary for BMMC activation. Labeled BMMCs were found in ischemic kidney on FACS analysis. This improved outcome was associated with modulation of inflammation in the kidney and systemic modulation, as determined by cytokine expression profiling. Despite non-amelioration of functional parameters, kidney mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 at 6 weeks was lower in BMMC-treated animals, as were levels of collagen 1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and vimentin. Protective molecules, such as IL-10, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and bone morphogenetic 7 (BMP-7), were increased in treated animals after 6 weeks. Moreover, Masson and Picrosirius red staining analyses showed less fibrotic areas in the kidneys of treated animals. Thus, early modulation of inflammation by BMMCs after an ischemic injury leads to reduced fibrosis through modulation of early inflammation.

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This work explored the role of inhibition of cyclooxygenases (COXs) in modulating the inflammatory response triggered by acute kidney injury. C57Bl/6 mice were used. Animals were treated or not with indomethacin (IMT) prior to injury (days -1 and 0). Animals were subjected to 45 min of renal pedicle occlusion and sacrificed at 24 h after reperfusion. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, reactive oxygen species (ROS), kidney myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) levels were analyzed. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, t-bet, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-1 beta, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) messenger RNA (mRNA) were studied. Cytokines were quantified in serum. IMT-treated animals presented better renal function with less acute tubular necrosis and reduced ROS and MPO production. Moreover, the treatment was associated with lower expression of TNF-alpha, PGE(2), PGES, and t-bet and upregulation of HO-1 and IL-10. This profile was mirrored in serum, where inhibition of COXs significantly decreased interferon (IFN)-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-12 p70 and upregulated IL-10. COXs seem to play an important role in renal ischemia and reperfusion injury, involving the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, activation of neutrophils, and ROS production. Inhibition of COX pathway is intrinsically involved with cytoprotection.