98 resultados para genotypes
em QUB Research Portal - Research Directory and Institutional Repository for Queen's University Belfast
Twenty-eight mapped barley SSRs were used to examine changes in the level and pattern of variability in northern European spring barley over time. Comparing the most recently introduced cultivars with a group of 19 landraces and key progenitors termed 'foundation genotypes' we observed a reduction in the spectrum of alleles at 28 loci over time, and highlighted chromosomal regions with limited SSR allelic variation. The 19 'foundation genotypes' contained 72% of the alleles present in all the cultivars sampled. The smallest number of genotypes required to encompass all of the alleles detected in this study was 44, several of which were recently introduced cultivars. The level of diversity within modern cultivars was lower (0.484) than in the 'foundation genotypes' (0.597), although the values varied with the SSR locus. A total of 74 rare alleles (frequency
Factors that influence response to drug treatment are of increasing importance. We report an analysis of genetic factors affecting response to cholinesterase inhibitor therapy in 165 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The presence of apolipoprotein E e4 (APOE e4) allele was associated with early and late cognitive response to cholinesterase inhibitor treatment in mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) greater than or equal to21) (P
A study is performed to examine the distribution and frequency of 25S rRNA intron genotypes of Candida albicans isolated from different anatomical sites of patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Germ-tube positive Candida isolates (n=65) from 65 patients are included and isolates are characterised by 25S intron genotyping, whereby all can be subdivided into four genotypes (A-D). Results demonstrated that there were no significant differences between the frequency and genotype distribution of the Candida isolates and the anatomical site of colonisation. Furthermore, analysis of the transposable intron region in the 25S rRNA gene demonstrated equal distribution, regardless of age and anatomical site of isolation (groin, throat, etc.). Therefore, there does not appear to be any selective pressure associated with any anatomical site, resulting in an ecological shift in the frequency of genotypes present. This suggests that C. albicans intron genotypes equally colonise those sites of the body examined in this study. Although such an ecological finding as this is interesting, it perpetuates the continued need to find a genotypic typing scheme that helps to identify the source (nosocomial or endogenous) and mode of entry of C. albicans into patients in the ICU setting, resulting in C. albicans bloodstream infection.
Objective: We tested the hypothesis that patients with difficult asthma have an increased frequency of certain genotypes that predispose them to asthma exacerbations and poor asthma control.
Methods: A total of 180 Caucasian children with confirmed asthma diagnosis were selected from two phenotypic groups; difficult (n = 112) versus mild/moderate asthma (n = 68) groups. All patients were screened for 19 polymorphisms in 9 candidate genes to evaluate their association with difficult asthma.
Key Results: The results indicated that LTA4H A-9188.G, TNFa G-308.A and IL-4Ra A1727.G polymorphisms were significantly associated with the development of difficult asthma in paediatric patients (p,0.001, p = 0.019 and p = 0.037, respectively). Haplotype analysis also revealed two haplotypes (ATA haplotype of IL-4Ra A1199.C, IL-4Ra T1570.C and IL- 4Ra A1727.G and CA haplotype of TNFa C-863.A and TNFa G-308.A polymorphisms) which were significantly associated with difficult asthma in children (p = 0.04 and p = 0.018, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: The study revealed multiple SNPs and haplotypes in LTA4H, TNFa and IL4-Ra genes which constitute risk factors for the development of difficult asthma in children. Of particular interest is the LTA4H A- 9188.G polymorphism which has been reported, for the first time, to have strong association with severe asthma in children. Our results suggest that screening for patients with this genetic marker could help characterise the heterogeneity of responses to leukotriene-modifying medications and, hence, facilitate targeting these therapies to the subset of patients who are most likely to gain benefit. ©2013 Almomani et al.
The nucleotide sequence encoding the C terminus of the nucleocapsid protein of measles virus (MV) is the most variable in the genome. The sequence of this region is reported for 21 new MV strains and for virus RNA obtained from cases of subacute panencephalitis (SSPE) tissue. The nucleotide sequence of a total of 65 MV strains has been analysed using the CLUSTAL program to determine the relationships between the strains. An unrooted tree shows that eight different genotypes can be discerned amongst the sequences analysed so far. The data show that the C-terminal coding sequence of the nucleocapsid gene, although highly variable between strains, is stable in a given strain and does not appear to diverge in tissue culture. It therefore provides a good 'signature' sequence for specific genotypes. The sequence of this region can be used to discriminate new imported viruses from old 'endemic' strains of MV in a geographical area. The different genotypes are not geographically restricted although some appear to be the mainly 'endemic' types in large areas of the world. In global terms there appears to be at least four co-circulating genotypes of MV. The low level of divergence in the Edmonston lineage group isolated before 1970 indicates that some isolates are probably laboratory contaminants. This applies to some SSPE isolates such as the Halle, Mantooth and Horta-Barbosa strains as well as some wild-type isolates from that period.
Significant genotypic difference in response to arsenate toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa) was investigated in root elongation, arsenate uptake kinetics, physiological and biochemical response and arsenic (As) speciation. Uptake kinetics data showed that P-deprived genotype 94D-54 had a little higher As uptake than P-deprived 94D-64, but the difference was not large enough to cause acute toxicity in P-deprived 94D-54. There was no difference in tissue P concentrations between the two genotypes under P deficient conditions. In addition, arsenic speciation in plant tissues (using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) was not different between P pretreatments and between genotypes. P-deprived genotype 94D-54 suffered much higher stress induced by arsenate toxicity than P-deprived genotype 94D-64, in terms of lipid peroxidation, tissue H2O2 concentrations and exosmosis of K, P and As. However, P-deprived 94D-54 also had higher overproduction of enzymatic antioxidants (with higher GPX, SOD, CAT) and NPT (non-protein thiols) than P-deprived 94D-64. It appeared that, the higher sensitivity of P-deprived 94D-54 to arsenate toxicity might cause the overproduction of NPT, thus leading to the depletion of GSH and to the accumulation of H2O2. The differential sensitivity of the two genotypes has major implications for breeding rice for As affected paddy soil.
A compartmented soil-glass bead culture system was used to investigate characteristics of iron plaque and arsenic accumulation and speciation in mature rice plants with different capacities of forming iron plaque on their roots. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra and extended X-ray absorption fine structure were utilized to identify the mineralogical characteristics of iron plaque and arsenic sequestration in plaque on the rice roots. Iron plaque was dominated by (oxyhydr)oxides, which were composed of ferrihydrite (81-100%), with a minor amount of goethite (19%) fitted in one of the samples. Sequential extraction and XANES data showed that arsenic in iron plaque was sequestered mainly with amorphous and crystalline iron (oxyhydr)oxides, and that arsenate was the predominant species. There was significant variation in iron plaque formation between genotypes, and the distribution of arsenic in different components of mature rice plants followed the following order:? iron plaque > root > straw > husk > grain for all genotypes. Arsenic accumulation in grain differed significantly among genotypes. Inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were the main arsenic species in rice grain for six genotypes, and there were large genotypic differences in levels of DMA and inorganic arsenic in grain. A compartmented soil-glass bead culture system was used to investigate characteristics of iron plaque and arsenic accumulation and speciation in mature rice plants with different capacities of forming iron plaque on their roots. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra and extended X-ray absorption fine structure were utilized to identify the mineralogical characteristics of iron plaque and arsenic sequestration in plaque on the rice roots. Iron plaque was dominated by (oxyhydr)oxides, which were composed of ferrihydrite (81-100%), with a minor amount of goethite (19%) fitted in one of the samples. Sequential extraction and XANES data showed that arsenic in iron plaque was sequestered mainly with amorphous and crystalline iron (oxyhydr)oxides, and that arsenate was the predominant species. There was significant variation in iron plaque formation between genotypes, and the distribution of arsenic in different components of mature rice plants followed the following order:? iron plaque > root > straw > husk > grain for all genotypes. Arsenic accumulation in grain differed significantly among genotypes. Inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were the main arsenic species in rice grain for six genotypes, and there were large genotypic differences in levels of DMA and inorganic arsenic in grain.
Compared to other cereals, rice has particular strong As accumulation. Therefore, it is very important to understand As uptake and translocation among different genotypes. A field study in Chenzhou city, Hunan province of China, was employed to evaluate the effect of arsenic-contaminated soil on uptake and distribution in 34 genotypes of rice (including unpolished rice, husk, shoot, and root). The soil As concentrations ranged from 52.49 to 83.86 mg kg-1, with mean As concentration 64.44 mg kg-1. The mean As concentrations in rice plant tissues were different among the 34 rice genotypes. The highest As concentrations were accumulated in rice root (196.27-385.98 mg kg-1 dry weight), while the lowest was in unpolished rice (0.31-0.52 mg kg-1 dry weight). The distribution of As in rice tissue and paddy soil are as follows root » soil > shoot > husk > unpolished rice. The ranges of concentrations of inorganic As in all of unpolished rice were from 0.26 to 0.52 mg kg-1 dry weight. In particular, the percentage of inorganic As in the total As was more than 67 %, indicating that the inorganic As was the predominant species in unpolished rice. The daily dietary intakes of inorganic As in unpolished rice ranged from 0.10 to 0.21 mg for an adult, and from 0.075 to 0.15 mg for a child. Comparison with tolerable daily intakes established by FAO/WHO, inorganic As in most of unpolished rice samples exceeded the recommended intake values. The 34 genotypes of rice were classified into four clusters using a criteria value of rescaled distance between 5 and 10. Among the 34 genotypes, the genotypes II you 416 (II416) with the lowest enrichment of As and the lowest daily dietary intakes of inorganic As could be selected as the main cultivar in As-contaminated field.
Strains of many infectious agents differ in fundamental epidemiological parameters including transmissibility, virulence and pathology. We investigated whether genotypes of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, bTB) differ significantly in transmissibility and virulence, combining data from a nine-year survey of the genetic structure of the M. bovis population in Northern Ireland with detailed records of the cattle population during the same period. We used the size of herd breakdowns as a proxy measure of transmissibility and the proportion of skin test positive animals (reactors) that were visibly lesioned as a measure of virulence. Average breakdown size increased with herd size and varied depending on the manner of detection (routine herd testing or tracing of infectious contacts) but we found no significant variation among M. bovis genotypes in breakdown size once these factors had been accounted for. However breakdowns due to some genotypes had a greater proportion of lesioned reactors than others, indicating that there may be variation in virulence among genotypes. These findings indicate that the current bTB control programme may be detecting infected herds sufficiently quickly so that differences in virulence are not manifested in terms of outbreak sizes. We also investigated whether pathology of infected cattle varied according to M. bovis genotype, analysing the distribution of lesions recorded at post mortem inspection. We concentrated on the proportion of cases lesioned in the lower respiratory tract, which can indicate the relative importance of the respiratory and alimentary routes of infection. The distribution of lesions varied among genotypes and with cattle age and there were also subtle differences among breeds. Age and breed differences may be related to differences in susceptibility and husbandry, but reasons for variation in lesion distribution among genotypes require further investigation. © 2013 Wright et al.
We describe Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisitions in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) aged ≤5-years, eradication treatment efficacy, and genotypic relationships between upper and lower airway isolates and strains from non-CF sources.
Of 168 CF children aged ≤5-years in a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-directed therapy trial, 155 had detailed microbiological results. Overall, 201/271 (74%) P. aeruginosa isolates from BAL and oropharyngeal cultures were available for genotyping, including those collected before and after eradication therapy.
Eighty-two (53%) subjects acquired P. aeruginosa, of which most were unique strains. Initial eradication success rate was 90%, but 36 (44%) reacquired P. aeruginosa, with genotypic substitutions more common in BAL (12/14) than oropharyngeal (3/11) cultures. Moreover, oropharyngeal cultures did not predict BAL genotypes reliably.
CF children acquire environmental P. aeruginosa strains frequently. However, discordance between BAL and oropharyngeal strains raises questions over upper airway reservoirs and how to best determine eradication in non-expectorating children.
Recent molecular-typing studies suggest cross-infection as one of the potential acquisition pathways for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In Australia, there is only limited evidence of unrelated patients sharing indistinguishable P. aeruginosa strains. We therefore examined the point-prevalence, distribution, diversity and clinical impact of P. aeruginosa strains in Australian CF patients nationally. 983 patients attending 18 Australian CF centres provided 2887 sputum P. aeruginosa isolates for genotyping by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR assays with confirmation by multilocus sequence typing. Demographic and clinical details were recorded for each participant. Overall, 610 (62%) patients harboured at least one of 38 shared genotypes. Most shared strains were in small patient clusters from a limited number of centres. However, the two predominant genotypes, AUST-01 and AUST-02, were widely dispersed, being detected in 220 (22%) and 173 (18%) patients attending 17 and 16 centres, respectively. AUST-01 was associated with significantly greater treatment requirements than unique P. aeruginosa strains. Multiple clusters of shared P. aeruginosa strains are common in Australian CF centres. At least one of the predominant and widespread genotypes is associated with increased healthcare utilisation. Longitudinal studies are now needed to determine the infection control implications of these findings.