15 resultados para genotypes

em Biblioteca Digital da Produ����o Intelectual da Universidade de S��o Paulo


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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a public health problem throughout the world and 3% of the world population is infected with this virus. It is estimated that 3-4 millions individuals are being infected every year. It has been estimated that around 1.5% of Brazilian population is anti-HCV positive and the Northeast region showed the highest prevalence in Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize HCV genotypes circulating in Pernambuco State (PE), Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. This study included 85 anti-HCV positive patients followed up between 2004 and 2011. For genotyping, a 380bp fragment of HCV RNA in the NS5B region was amplified by nested PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation (MCMC) using BEAST v.1.5.3. From 85 samples, 63 (74.1%) positive to NS5B fragment were successfully sequenced. Subtype 1b was the most prevalent in this population (42-66.7%), followed by 3a (16-25.4%), 1a (4-6.3%) and 2b (1-1.6%). Twelve (63.1%) and seven (36.9%) patients with HCV and schistosomiasis were infected with subtypes 1b and 3a, respectively. Brazil is a large country with many different population backgrounds; a large variation in the frequencies of HCV genotypes is predictable throughout its territory. This study reports HCV genotypes from Pernambuco State where subtype 1b was found to be the most prevalent. Phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of the different HCV strains circulating within this population. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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HRSV is one of the most important pathogens causing acute respiratory tract diseases as bronchiolitis and pneumonia among infants. HRSV was isolated from two distinct communities, a public day care center and a public hospital in Sao Jose do Rio Preto - SP, Brazil. We obtained partial sequences from G gene that were used on phylogenetic and selection pressure analysis. HRSV accounted for 29% of respiratory infections in hospitalized children and 7.7% in day care center children. On phylogenetic analysis of 60 HRSV strains, 48 (80%) clustered within or adjacent to the GA1 genotype; GA5, NA1, NA2, BA-IV and SAB1 were also observed. SJRP GA1 strains presented variations among deduced amino acids composition and lost the potential O-glycosilation site at amino acid position 295, nevertheless this resulted in an insertion of two potential O-glycosilation sites at positions 296 and 297. Furthermore, a potential O-glycosilation site insertion, at position 293, was only observed for hospital strains. Using SLAC and MEME methods, only amino acid 274 was identified to be under positive selection. This is the first report on HRSV circulation and genotypes classification derived from a day care center community in Brazil.

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Rapid decline in cell-wall digestibility hinders efficient use of warm-season grasses. The objective of this study was to identify genes whose expressions are related to the slope of decline in cell-wall digestibility. Eleven guineagrass genotypes were harvested at three ages and classified according to fibre digestibility. Extreme genotypes were separated into groups with either FAST or SLOW decline in fibre digestibility. Expression of transcripts from six genes from the lignin synthesis pathway was quantified by real-time PCR. Fast decline in fibre digestibility was associated with higher DM yield after 90 d of regrowth. Apart from lower fibre digestibility and higher lignin content for the FAST group, there were no other differences between the two groups for the chemical composition of stems and leaves. Maturity affected differently the expression of two of the six genes, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (C4H and CCoAOMT). Genotypes with fast decline in fibre digestibility had greater increase in the expression of C4H and CCoAOMT from 30 to 60 d of regrowth, than genotypes with slower decline. Expression of C4H and CCoAOMT appears to be related to the decline in cell-wall digestibility with advance in maturity of guineagrass.

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Background: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Findings: Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of Sao Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV), Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%). PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1) or 2b (n = 10). Conclusions: The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of Sao Paulo is rather low (10.7%) and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.

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The emergence of new infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) genotypes or serotypes along with the poor cross-protection observed among IBV serotypes have complicated the avian infectious bronchitis (IB) control programs in different geographic regions. In Cuba, the lack of genetic information regarding IBV and the increasing epidemiological importance of this virus in Cuban chicken flocks demand further characterization of IBV isolates. In the present work, studies of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among recent IBV isolates from Cuban chicken flocks showing respiratory disorders were performed. Two putative genotypes genetically different to the Massachusetts genotype H120 strain used in the Cuban vaccination program were found in the flocks assessed. In addition, a potential nephropathogenic IBV isolate was found by first time in Cuba. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba are the agents of both opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections and are frequently isolated from the environment. Of the 17 genotypes (T1-T17) identified thus far, 4 (T7, T8, T9, and T17) accommodate the rarely investigated species of morphological group I, those that form large, star-shaped cysts. We report the isolation and characterization of 7 new Brazilian environmental Acanthamoeba isolates, all assigned to group I. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial (similar to 1200 bp) SSU rRNA gene sequences placed the new isolates in the robustly supported clade composed of the species of morphological group I. One of the Brazilian isolates is closely related to A. comandoni (genotype T9), while the other 6, together with 2 isolates recently assigned to genotype T17, form a homogeneous, well-supported group (2-0% sequence divergence) that likely represents a new Acanthamoeba species. Thermotolerance, osmotolerance, and cytophatic effects, features often associated with pathogenic potential, were also examined. The results indicated that all 7 Brazilian isolates grow at temperatures up to 40 degrees C, and resist under hvperosmotic conditions. Additionally, media conditioned by each of the new Acanthamoeba isolates induced the disruption of SIRC and HeLa cell monolayers.

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Southern Brazil is considered an area of low Hepatitis B endemicity, but some areas of higher endemicity have been described in the Southwest of Parana and Santa Catarina states. The aim of this study was to evaluate viral genotypes circulating throughout Parana state. PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the S gene was carried out in 228 samples from HBsAg positive candidate blood donors. Samples have been collected in seven different counties (Cascavel, Curitiba, Foz do Iguacu, Francisco Beltrao, Matinga Londrina and Paranagua). The most common HBV genotype in Parana state was D (82.9%; 189/228), followed by A (14.1%; 32/228). Genotypes F (1.3%; 3/228), C (1.3%; 3/228) and H (0.4%; 1/228) were also found. Distribution of genotypes was different in the studied counties, but genotype D was the most frequent in all of them. In Francisco Beltrao, all studied samples belonged to genotype D. The high prevalence of HBV genotype Din South of Brazil is explained by the intense migration of settlers from Europeans countries. Subgenotypes A1 and A2 were identified circulating in all cities where HBV/A was found. As observed in other areas of Brazil, HBV/A1 is more frequent than the HBV/A2 in Parana state and its presence was significantly larger in black and mulatto individuals. Genotype C was found only in individuals with Asian ancestry from Londrina and Maringa. Most HBV/F sequences identified in this study were classified as subgenotype F2a that was previously described in Brazil. The sole case of subgenotype F4 was from Foz do Iguacu city, near to Northern Argentina, where F4 is highly prevalent. The single genotype H sample was from Curitiba. This is the first case of this genotype described in Brazil. Further studies should be carried out to determine if more genotype H samples can be found in other populations from Brazil. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of new oligonucleotide primers (mcyB-F/R, mcyB-F/R-A, and mcyB-F/R-B) designed from Brazilian cyanobacteria for the detection of microcystin-producing genotypes in 27 environmental samples from water reservoirs and 11 strains of Microcystis. Microcystins were found using HPLC in all 11 strains and 19 of the environmental samples. The new oligonucleotide primers amplified fragments of microcystin-producing genes, including the eight environmental samples in which no microcystins were detected by HPLC, but which presented amplified fragments, thereby demonstrating the existence of microcystin-producing genes. The new oligonucleotide primers exhibited better specificity when used with environmental samples and were more reliable in comparison with those described in the literature (mcyB-FAA/RAA and mcyA-Cd/FR), which generate false-negative results. The better performance of these new oligonucleotide primers underline the need for designing molecular markers that are well fitted to the regional biological diversity. As this is a fast predictive technique for determining the presence or absence of microcystins, it could be used either alone or in conjunction with other techniques, such as the screening of samples to be sent for quantitative toxicological analysis using HPLC, thereby reducing monitoring cost and time. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.

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The objective of the present work was to propose a method for testing the contribution of each level of the factors in a genotypes x environments (GxE) interaction using multi-environment trials analyses by means of an F test. The study evaluated a data set, with twenty genotypes and thirty-four environments, in a block design with four replications. The sum of squares within rows (genotypes) and columns (environments) of the GxE matrix was simulated, generating 10000 experiments to verify the empirical distribution. Results indicate a noncentral chi-square distribution for rows and columns of the GxE interaction matrix, which was also verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Q-Q plot. Application of the F test identified the genotypes and environments that contributed the most to the GxE interaction. In this way, geneticists can select good genotypes in their studies.

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Since it was first reported in Brazil in the 1990s, the B biotype of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci [Genn.], Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has been recognized as an important pest in soybeans (Glycine max L.), reducing the productivity of this legume species in some areas of the country. As an alternative to chemical control, the use of resistant genotypes represents an important tool for integrated pest management (IPM). This study evaluated the performance of 10 soybean genotypes prior to whitefly infestation, by testing attractiveness and preference for oviposition in the greenhouse and antibiosis in the laboratory. In a multiple-choice test, 'IAC-17' was the least attractive to insects. In a no-choice test, 'IAC-17' was the least attractive for, egg deposition, indicating the occurrence of non-preference for oviposition on this genotype. Trichome density was positively correlated with the oviposition site and may be associated with the resistance of 'IAC-17' to infestation. The genotypes 'IAC-PL1', 'IAC-19', 'Conquista', 'IAC-24' and 'IAC-17' extended the insect's life cycle, indicating the occurrence of a small degree of antibiosis and/or non-preference for feeding.

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Polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes were shown to be associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. However, epistasis is suggested to be an important component of the genetic susceptibility to preeclampsia (PE). The aim of this study was to characterize the interactions among these genes in PE and gestational hypertension (GH). Seven clinically relevant polymorphisms of eNOS (T-786C, rs2070744, a variable number of tandem repeats in intron 4 and Glu298Asp, rs1799983), MMP-9 (C-1562T, rs3918242 and -90(CA)(13-25), rs2234681) and VEGF (C-2578A, rs699947 and G-634C, rs2010963) were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays or PCR and fragment separation by electrophoresis in 122 patients with PE, 107 patients with GH and a control group of 102 normotensive pregnant (NP) women. A robust multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis was used to characterize gene-gene interactions. Although no significant genotype combinations were observed for the comparison between the GH and NP groups (P>0.05), the combination of MMP-9-1562CC with VEGF-634GG was more frequent in NP women than in women with PE (P<0.05). Moreover, the combination of MMP-9-1562CC with VEGF-634CC or MMP-9-1562CT with VEGF-634CC or-634GG was more frequent in women with PE than in NP women (P<0.05). These results are obscured when single polymorphisms in these genes are considered and suggest that specific genotype combinations of MMP-9 and VEGF contribute to PE susceptibility. Hypertension Research (2012) 35, 917-921; doi:10.1038/hr.2012.60; published online 10 May 2012

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Abstract Background Invasive cervical cancer is the second most common malignant tumor affecting Brazilian women. Knowledge on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in invasive cervical cancer cases is crucial to guide the introduction and further evaluate the impact of new preventive strategies based on HPV. We aimed to provide updated comprehensive data about the HPV types’ distribution in patients with invasive cervical cancer. Methods Fresh tumor tissue samples of histologically confirmed invasive cervical cancer were collected from 175 women attending two cancer reference hospitals from São Paulo State: ICESP and Hospital de Câncer de Barretos. HPV detection and genotyping were performed by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Pleasanton,USA). Results 170 out of 172 valid samples (99%) were HPV DNA positive. The most frequent types were HPV16 (77.6%), HPV18 (12.3%), HPV31 (8.8%), HPV33 (7.1%) and HPV35 (5.9%). Most infections (75%) were caused by individual HPV types. Women with adenocarcinoma were not younger than those with squamous cell carcinoma, as well, as women infected with HPV33 were older than those infected by other HPV types. Some differences between results obtained in the two hospitals were observed: higher overall prevalence of HPV16, absence of single infection by HPV31 and HPV45 was verified in HC-Barretos in comparison to ICESP patients. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is one of the largest studies made with fresh tumor tissues of invasive cervical cancer cases in Brazil. This study depicted a distinct HPV genotype distribution between two centers that may reflect the local epidemiology of HPV transmission among these populations. Due to the impact of these findings on cervical cancer preventive strategies, extension of this investigation to routine screening populations is warranted.

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Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be classified into nine genotypes (A-I) defined by sequence divergence of more than 8% based on the complete genome. This study aims to identify the genotypic distribution of HBV in 40 HBsAg-positive patients from Rondônia, Brazil. A fragment of 1306 bp partially comprising surface and polymerase overlapping genes was amplified by PCR. Amplified DNA was purified and sequenced. Amplified DNA was purified and sequenced on an ABI PRISM® 377 Automatic Sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). The obtained sequences were aligned with reference sequences obtained from the GenBank using Clustal X software and then edited with Se-Al software. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted by the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach using BEAST v.1.5.3. Results The subgenotypes distribution was A1 (37.1%), D3 (22.8%), F2a (20.0%), D4 (17.1%) and D2 (2.8%). Conclusions These results for the first HBV genotypic characterization in Rondônia state are consistent with other studies in Brazil, showing the presence of several HBV genotypes that reflects the mixed origin of the population, involving descendants from Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans.

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Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen affecting around 3% of the human population. In Brazil, it is estimated that there are approximately 2 to 3 million HCV chronic carriers. There are few reports of HCV prevalence in Rondônia State (RO), but it was estimated in 9.7% from 1999 to 2005. The aim of this study was to characterize HCV genotypes in 58 chronic HCV infected patients from Porto Velho, Rondônia (RO), Brazil. Methods A fragment of 380 bp of NS5B region was amplified by nested PCR for genotyping analysis. Viral sequences were characterized by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences obtained from the GenBank (n = 173). Sequences were aligned using Muscle software and edited in the SE-AL software. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation (MCMC) to obtain the MCC tree using BEAST v.1.5.3. Results From 58 anti-HCV positive samples, 22 were positive to the NS5B fragment and successfully sequenced. Genotype 1b was the most prevalent in this population (50%), followed by 1a (27.2%), 2b (13.6%) and 3a (9.0%). Conclusions This study is the first report of HCV genotypes from Rondônia State and subtype 1b was found to be the most prevalent. This subtype is mostly found among people who have a previous history of blood transfusion but more detailed studies with a larger number of patients are necessary to understand the HCV dynamics in the population of Rondônia State, Brazil.

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Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Findings Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV), Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%). PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1) or 2b (n = 10). Conclusions The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7%) and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.