4 resultados para Acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis
em Biblioteca Digital da Produ����o Intelectual da Universidade de S��o Paulo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) combined with fluid resuscitation on pulmonary cell death in rats induced with controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS). METHODS: Two arteries (MAP calculation and exsanguination) and one vein (treatments) were catheterized in 22 anesthetized rats. Two groups of male albino rats were induced with controlled HS at 35mmHg MAP for 60 min. After this period, the RL group was resuscitated with Ringer's lactate and the RL+NAC group was resuscitated with Ringer's lactate combined with 150mg/Kg NAC. The control group animals were cannulated only. The animals were euthanized after 120 min of fluid resuscitation. Lung tissue samples were collected to evaluate the following: histopathology, TUNEL and imunohistochemical expression of caspase 3. RESULTS: RL showed a greater number of cells stained by TUNEL than RL + NAC, but there was no change in caspase 3 expression in any group. CONCLUSION: N-acetylcysteine associate to fluid resuscitation, after hemorrhagic shock, decreased cell death attenuating lung injury.
Background. Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is an alternative to blood transfusion in surgeries involving blood loss. This experimental study was designed to evaluate whether pulse pressure variation (PPV) would be an adequate tool for monitoring changes in preload during ANH, as assessed by transesophageal echocardiography. Methods. Twenty-one anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs were randomized into three groups: CTL (control), HES (hemodilution with 6% hydroxyethyl starch at a 1:1 ratio) or NS (hemodilution with saline 0.9% at a 3:1 ratio). Hemodilution was performed in animals of groups NS and HES in two stages, with target hematocrits 22% and 15%, achieved at 30-minute intervals. After two hours, 50% of the blood volume withdrawn was transfused and animals were monitored for another hour. Statistical analysis was based on ANOVA for repeated measures followed by multiple comparison test (P<0.05). Pearson's correlations were performed between changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and PPV, central venous pressure (CVP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP). Results. Group NS received a significantly greater amount of fluids during ANH (NS, 900 +/- 168 mL vs. HES, 200 +/- 50 mL, P<0.05) and presented greater urine output (NS, 2643 +/- 1097mL vs. HES, 641 +/- 338mL, P<0.001). Significant decreases in LVEDV were observed in group NS from completion of ANH until transfusion. In group HES, only increases in LVEDV were observed, at the end of ANH and at transfusion. Such changes in LVEDV (Delta LVEDV) were better reflected by changes in PPV (Delta PPV, R=-0.62) than changes in CVP (Delta CVP R=0.32) or in PAOP (Delta PAOP, R=0.42, respectively). Conclusion. Changes in preload during ANH were detected by changes in PPV. Delta PPV was superior to Delta PAOP and Delta CVP to this end. (Minerva Anestesiol 2012;78:426-33)
Object. Sonothrombolysis has recently been considered an emerging modality for the treatment of stroke. The purpose of the present paper was to review randomized clinical studies concerning the effects of sonothrombolysis associated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on acute ischemic stroke. Methods. Systematic searches for literature published between January 1996 and July 2011 were performed for studies regarding sonothrombolysis combined with tPA for acute ischemic stroke. Only randomized controlled trials were included. Data extraction was based on ultrasound variables, patient characteristics, and outcome variables (rate of intracranial hemorrhages and arterial recanalization). Results. Four trials were included in this study; 2 trials evaluated the effect of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography on sonothrombolysis, and 2 addressed transcranial color-coded duplex (TCCD) ultrasonography. The frequency of ultrasound waves varied from 1.8 to 2 MHz. The duration of thrombus exposure to ultrasound energy ranged from 60 to 120 minutes. Sample sizes were small, recanalization was evaluated at different time points (60 and 120 minutes), and inclusion criteria were heterogeneous. Sonothrombolysis combined with tPA did not lead to an increase in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhagic complications. Two studies demonstrated that patients treated with ultrasound combined with tPA had statistically significant higher rates of recanalization than patients treated with tPA alone. Conclusions. Despite the heterogeneity and the limitations of the reviewed studies, there is evidence that sonothrombolysis associated with tPA is a safe procedure and results in an increased rate of recanalization in the setting of acute ischemic stroke when wave frequencies and energy intensities of diagnostic ultrasound systems are used. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2011.10.FOCUS11251)
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea is frequent during the acute phase of stroke, and it is associated with poorer outcomes. A well-established relationship between supine sleep and obstructive sleep apnea severity exists in non-stroke patients. This study investigated the frequency of supine sleep and positional obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: Patients who suffered their first acute stroke, either ischemic or hemorrhagic, were subjected to a full polysomnography, including the continuous monitoring of sleep positions, during the first night after symptom onset. Obstructive sleep apnea severity was measured using the apnea-hypopnea index, and the NIHSS measured stroke severity. RESULTS: We prospectively studied 66 stroke patients. The mean age was 57.6+/-11.5 years, and the mean body mass index was 26.5+/-4.9. Obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index >= 5) was present in 78.8% of patients, and the mean apnea-hypopnea index was 29.7+/-26.6. The majority of subjects (66.7%) spent the entire sleep time in a supine position, and positional obstructive sleep apnea was clearly present in the other 23.1% of cases. A positive correlation was observed between the NIHSS and sleep time in the supine position (r(s) = 0.5; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged supine positioning during sleep was highly frequent after stroke, and it was related to stroke severity. Positional sleep apnea was observed in one quarter of stroke patients, which was likely underestimated during the acute phase of stroke. The adequate positioning of patients during sleep during the acute phase of stroke may decrease obstructive respiratory events, regardless of the stroke subtype.