22 resultados para genotypes

em Indian Institute of Science - Bangalore - ��ndia


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Consider an organism in which the genetic fitness of an individual depends to a large extent on its social interactions. Assuming the genotypes to differ only in the choice of strategies they adopt in social interactions, and equating the variation in genetic fitness to the mean payoff to an individual averaged over all possible encounters, we develop a dynamical model for the evolution of genotypic frequencies in such a population. Such a system is characterised by frequency dependent selection, and depending on the initial composition, the population evolves towards one of several possible compositions. We term as evolutionarily stable compositions (ESC) any such composition towards which a population can evolve and which is stable against small fluctuations in the frequencies of existing genotypes as well as to invasions by any other postulated genotype. We state the necessary and sufficient conditions for the identification of all possible ESC's for any number of interacting genotypes. Our results conform to those derived earlier in connection with the concept of evolutionarily stable strategies only in the case of two interacting genotypes; when more than two genotypes interact the conditions under which various ESC's exist become far richer. We consider interactions with mixed strategists and show that in a conflict with pure strategists the optimal mixed strategist will be the only one to ultimately survive. We illustrate our approach by considering the specific case of a primitively social wasp.

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The aim of the present study was to draw inferences regarding the properties of single cells responsible for co-operative behaviour in the slug of the soil amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. The slug is an integrated multicellular mass formed by the aggregation of starved cells. The amoebae comprising the slug differentiate according to their spatial locations relative to one another, implying that, as in the case of other regulative embryos, they must be in mutual communication. We have previously shown that one manifestation of this communication is the time taken for the anteriormost fragment of the slug, the tip, to regenerate from slugs which have been rendered tipless by amputation. We present results of tip-regeneration experiments performed on genetically mosaic slugs. By comparing the mosaics with their component pure genotypes, we were able to discriminate between a set of otherwise equally plausible modes of intercellular signalling. Neither a'pacemaker' model, in which the overall rate of tip regeneration is determined by the cell with the highest frequency of autonomous oscillation, nor an 'independent-particle' model, in which the rate of regeneration is the arithmetical average of independent cell-dependent rates, is in quantitative accord with our findings. Our results are best explained by a form of signalling which operates by means of cell-to-cell relay. Therefore intercellular communication Seems to be essential for tip regeneration.

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Under certain special conditions natural selection can be effective at the level of local populations, or demes. Such interpopulation selection will favor genotypes that reduce the probability of extinction of their parent population even at the cost of a lowered inclusive fitness. Such genotypes may be characterized by altruistic traits only in a viscous population, i.e., in a population in which neighbors tend to be closely related. In a non-viscous population the interpopulation selection will instead favor spiteful traits when the populations are susceptible to extinction through the overutilization of the habitat, and cooperative traits when it is the newly established populations that are in the greatest danger of extinction.

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This is a continuation of earlier studies on the evolution of infinite populations of haploid genotypes within a genetic algorithm framework. We had previously explored the evolutionary consequences of the existence of indeterminate—“plastic”—loci, where a plastic locus had a finite probability in each generation of functioning (being switched “on”) or not functioning (being switched “off”). The relative probabilities of the two outcomes were assigned on a stochastic basis. The present paper examines what happens when the transition probabilities are biased by the presence of regulatory genes. We find that under certain conditions regulatory genes can improve the adaptation of the population and speed up the rate of evolution (on occasion at the cost of lowering the degree of adaptation). Also, the existence of regulatory loci potentiates selection in favour of plasticity. There is a synergistic effect of regulatory genes on plastic alleles: the frequency of such alleles increases when regulatory loci are present. Thus, phenotypic selection alone can be a potentiating factor in a favour of better adaptation.

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An experimental system was developed for assessing the role ofhetgenes in heterokaryon formation inNeurosporain nature. Burned sugar cane segments planted in soil were infected using a mixture of mutant ascospores of two genotypes.Neurosporaramified in the cane and erupted as distinct pustules of conidia. When ascospores carried identicalhetalleles, the (macro) conidial pustules which formed were heterokaryotic. On the other hand, when ascospores carried dissimilarhetalleles, the pustules were homokaryotic. These results showed that stable heterokaryons between compatible strains can form in nature. When two strains are growing together on a natural substrate, heterozygosity athetloci serves to maintain their individuality.

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The DNA polymorphism among 22 isolates of Sclerospora graminicola, the causal agent of downy mildew disease of pearl millet was assessed using 20 inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) primers. The objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of using ISSR markers for unravelling the extent and pattern of genetic diversity in 22 S. graminicola isolates collected from different host cultivars in different states of India. The 19 functional ISSR primers generated 410 polymorphic bands and revealed 89% polymorphism and were able to distinguish all the 22 isolates. Polymorphic bands used to construct an unweighted pair group method of averages (UPGMA) dendrogram based on Jaccard's co-efficient of similarity and principal coordinate analysis resulted in the formation of four major clusters of 22 isolates. The standardized Nei genetic distance among the 22 isolates ranged from 0.0050 to 0.0206. The UPGMA clustering using the standardized genetic distance matrix resulted in the identification of four clusters of the 22 isolates with bootstrap values ranging from 15 to 100. The 3D-scale data supported the UPGMA results, which resulted into four clusters amounting to 70% variation among each other. However, comparing the two methods show that sub clustering by dendrogram and multi dimensional scaling plot is slightly different. All the S. graminicola isolates had distinct ISSR genotypes and cluster analysis origin. The results of ISSR fingerprints revealed significant level of genetic diversity among the isolates and that ISSR markers could be a powerful tool for fingerprinting and diversity analysis in fungal pathogens.

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By “phenotypic plasticity” we refer to the capacity of a genotype to exhibit different phenotypes, whether in the same or in different environments. We have previously demonstrated that phenotypic plasticity can improve the degree of adaptation achieved via natural selection (Behera & Nanjundiah, 1995). That result was obtained from a genetic algorithm model of haploid genotypes (idealized as one-dimensional strings of genes) evolving in a fixed environment. Here, the dynamics of evolution is examined under conditions of a cyclically varying environment. We find that the rate of evolution, as well as the extent of adaptation (as measured by mean population fitness) is lowered because of environmental cycling. The decrease is adaptation caused by a varying environment can, however, be partly or wholly compensated by an increase in the degree of plasticity that a genotype is capable of. Also, the reduction of population fitness caused by a variable environment can be partially offset by decreasing the total number of genetic loci. We conjecture that an increase in genome size may have been among the factors responsible for the evolution of phenotypic plasticity.

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Background & objectives: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzyme in folate metabolism and involved in DNA synthesis, DNA repair and DNA methylation. The two common functional polymorphisms of MTHFR, 677C -> T and 1298 A -> C have shown to impact several diseases including cancer. This case-control study was undertaken to analyse the association of the MTHFR gene polymorphisms 677 C -> T and 1298 A -> C and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).Methods: One hundred patients with a confirmed histopathologic diagnosis of CRC and 86 age and gender matched controls with no history of cancer were taken for this study. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and the genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. The risk association was estimated by compounding odds ratio (OR) with 95 per cent confidence interval (CI). Results: Genotype frequency of MTHFR 677 CC, CT and TT were 76.7, 22.1 and 1.16 per cent in controls, and 74,25 and 1.0 per cent among patients. The 'T' allele frequency was 12.21 and 13.5 per cent in controls and patients respectively. The genotype frequency of MTHFR 1298 AA, AC, and CC were 25.6, 58.1 and 16.3 per cent for controls and 22, 70 and 8 per cent for patents respectively. The 'C' allele frequency for 1298 A -> C was 43.0 and 45.3 per cent respectively for controls and patients. The OR for 677 CT was 1.18 (95% CI 0.59-2.32, P = 0.642), OR for 1298 AC was 1.68 (95% CI 0.92-3.08, P = 0.092) and OR for 1298 CC was 0.45(95% CI 0.18-1.12, P = 0.081). The OR for the combined heterozygous state (677 CT and 1298 AC) was 1.18(95% CI 0.52-2.64, P =0.697).Interpretation & conclusion: The frequency of the MTHFR 677 TT genotype is rare as compared to 1298 CC genotype in the population studied. There was no association between 677 C -> T and 1298 A -> C polymorphisms and risk of CRC either individually or in combination. The homozygous state for 1298 A -> C polymorphism appears to slightly lower risk of CRC. This needs to be confirmed with a larger sample size.

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In social selection the phenotype of an individual depends on its own genotype as well as on the phenotypes, and so genotypes, of other individuals. This makes it impossible to associate an invariant phenotype with a genotype: the social context is crucial. Descriptions of metazoan development, which often is viewed as the acme of cooperative social behaviour, ignore or downplay this fact. The implicit justification for doing so is based on a group-selectionist point of view. Namely, embryos are clones, therefore all cells have the same evolutionary interest, and the visible differences between cells result from a common strategy. The reasoning is flawed, because phenotypic heterogeneity within groups can result from contingent choices made by cells from a flexible repertoire as in multicellular development. What makes that possible is phenotypic plasticity, namely the ability of a genotype to exhibit different phenotypes. However, co-operative social behaviour with division of labour requires that different phenotypes interact appropriately, not that they belong to the same genotype, or have overlapping genetic interests. We sketch a possible route to the evolution of social groups that involves many steps: (a) individuals that happen to be in spatial proximity benefit simply by virtue of their number; (b) traits that are already present act as preadaptations and improve the efficiency of the group; and (c) new adaptations evolve under selection in the social context-that is, via interactions between individuals-and further strengthen group behaviour. The Dictyostelid or cellular slime mould amoebae (CSMs) become multicellular in an unusual way, by the aggregation of free-living cells. In nature the resulting group can be genetically homogeneous (clonal) or heterogeneous (polyclonal); in either case its development, which displays strong cooperation between cells (to the extent of so-called altruism) is not affected. This makes the CSMs exemplars for the study of social behaviour.

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The effect of NaCl on total peroxidase activity, induction of isoperoxidases and lipid peroxidation in 5-day-old seedlings of two contrasting genotypes of Setaria italica L. (Prasad, a salt tolerant cultivar and Lepakshi, a salt susceptible cultivar), was studied. Total peroxidase activity increased under NaCl salinity and the degree of elevation in the activity was salt concentration dependent. Nevertheless, a greater activity was recorded in the tolerant cultivar (cv Prasad) compared to the susceptible (cv Lepakshi) one in all days of sampling. Further, the pattern of isoperoxidases was modified during stress conditions as evident from the electrophoregrams. Although, five acidic isoforms were detected in both cultivars, differences were found between the cultivars. Furthermore, it was observed that acidic isoperoxidases were strongly expressed and an acidic isoperoxidase, A(3p) (27 kDa) is specifically found in the tolerant cultivar (cv Prasad) under NaCl stress. This isoform was partially purified and found to be thermostable with pr 5.5 and the optimum pH 7.4. A close correlation exists between the rate of lipid peroxidation in terms of malonaldehyde (MDA) content and total peroxidase activity per gram fresh weight with salt tolerance of the two cultivars. The tolerant cultivar (cv Prasad) had low MDA content and high total peroxidase activity than the susceptible variety (cv Lepakshi) during salinity stress. (C) 1999 Published by Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Sandalwood is an economically important aromatic tree belonging to the family Santalaceae. The trees are used mainly for their fragrant heartwood and oil that have immense potential for foreign exchange. Very little information is available on the genetic diversity in this species. Hence studies were initiated and genetic diversity estimated using RAPD markers in 51 genotypes of Santalum album procured from different geographcial regions of India and three exotic lines of S. spicatum from Australia. Eleven selected Operon primers (10mer) generated a total of 156 consistent and unambiguous amplification products ranging from 200bp to 4kb. Rare and genotype specific bands were identified which could be effectively used to distinguish the genotypes. Genetic relationships within the genotypes were evaluated by generating a dissimilarity matrix based on Ward's method (Squared Euclidean distance). The phenetic dendrogram and the Principal Component Analysis generated, separated the 51 Indian genotypes from the three Australian lines. The cluster analysis indicated that sandalwood germplasm within India constitutes a broad genetic base with values of genetic dissimilarity ranging from 15 to 91 %. A core collection of 21 selected individuals revealed the same diversity of the entire population. The results show that RAPD analysis is an efficient marker technology for estimating genetic diversity and relatedness, thereby enabling the formulation of appropriate strategies for conservation, germplasm management, and selection of diverse parents for sandalwood improvement programmes.

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In the trishanku (triA(-)) mutant of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, aggregates are smaller than usual and the spore mass is located mid-way up the stalk, not at the apex. We have monitored aggregate territory size, spore allocation and fruiting body morphology in chimaeric groups of (quasi-wild-type) Ax2 and triA(-) cells. Developmental canalisation breaks down in chimaeras and leads to an increase in phenotypic variation. A minority of triA(-) cells causes largely Ax2 aggregation streams to break up; the effect is not due to the counting factor. Most chimaeric fruiting bodies resemble those of Ax2 or triA(-). Others are double-deckers with a single stalk and two spore masses, one each at the terminus and midway along the stalk. The relative number of spores belonging to the two genotypes depends both on the mixing ratio and on the fruiting body morphology. In double-deckers formed from 1:1 chimaeras, the upper spore mass has more Ax2 spores, and the lower spore mass more triA(-) spores, than expected. Thus, the traits under study depend partly on the cells' own genotype and partly on the phenotypes, and so genotypes, of other cells: they are both autonomous and non-autonomous. These findings strengthen the parallels between multicellular development and behaviour in social groups. Besides that, they reinforce the point that a trait can be associated with a genotype only in a specified context.

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Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a member of Flaviviridae, encoding a positive-sense single-stranded RNA translates by cap-independent mechanism using the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) present in the 5' UTR of the virus. The IRES has complex stem loop structures and is capable of recruiting the 40S ribosomal subunit in a factor-independent fashion. As the IRES sequence is highly conserved throughout the HCV genotypes and the translation is the first obligatory step of the HCV life cycle, the IRE'S-mediated translation, or more specifically, the ribosome HCV RNA interaction is an attractive target to design effective antivirals. This article will focus on the mechanism of the HCV IRES translation and the various ways in which the interaction of ribosome and IRES has been targeted.

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Drought is the most crucial environmental factor that limits productivity of many crop plants. Exploring novel genes and gene combinations is of primary importance in plant drought tolerance research. Stress tolerant genotypes/species are known to express novel stress responsive genes with unique functional significance. Hence, identification and characterization of stress responsive genes from these tolerant species might be a reliable option to engineer the drought tolerance. Safflower has been found to be a relatively drought tolerant crop and thus, it has been the choice of study to characterize the genes expressed under drought stress. In the present study, we have evaluated differential drought tolerance of two cultivars of safflower namely, A1 and Nira using selective physiological marker traits and we have identified cultivar A1 as relatively drought tolerant. To identify the drought responsive genes, we have constructed a stress subtracted cDNA library from cultivar A1 following subtractive hybridization. Analysis of similar to 1,300 cDNA clones resulted in the identification of 667 unique drought responsive ESTs. Protein homology search revealed that 521 (78 %) out of 667 ESTs showed significant similarity to known sequences in the database and majority of them previously identified as drought stress-related genes and were found to be involved in a variety of cellular functions ranging from stress perception to cellular protection. Remaining 146 (22 %) ESTs were not homologous to known sequences in the database and therefore, they were considered to be unique and novel drought responsive genes of safflower. Since safflower is a stress-adapted oil-seed crop this observation has great relevance. In addition, to validate the differential expression of the identified genes, expression profiles of selected clones were analyzed using dot blot (reverse northern), and northern blot analysis. We showed that these clones were differentially expressed under different abiotic stress conditions. The implications of the analyzed genes in abiotic stress tolerance are discussed in our study.

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Background: Interaction of non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) with human kinases namely, casein kinase 1 alpha (ck1 alpha) and protein kinase R (PKR) have different functional implications such as regulation of viral replication and evasion of interferon induced immune response respectively. Understanding the structural and molecular basis of interactions of the viral protein with two different human kinases can be useful in developing strategies for treatment against HCV. Results: Serine 232 of NS5A is known to be phosphorylated by human ck1 alpha. A structural model of NS5A peptide containing phosphoacceptor residue Serine 232 bound to ck1 alpha has been generated using the known 3-D structures of kinase-peptide complexes. The substrate interacting residues in ck1 alpha has been identified from the model and these are found to be conserved well in the ck1 family. ck1 alpha - substrate peptide complex has also been used to understand the structural basis of association between ck1 alpha and its other viral stress induced substrate, tumour suppressor p53 transactivation domain which has a crystal structure available. Interaction of NS5A with another human kinase PKR is primarily genotype specific. NS5A from genotype 1b has been shown to interact and inhibit PKR whereas NS5A from genotype 2a/3a are unable to bind and inhibit PKR efficiently. This is one of the main reasons for the varied response to interferon therapy in HCV patients across different genotypes. Using PKR crystal structure, sequence alignment and evolutionary trace analysis some of the critical residues responsible for the interaction of NS5A 1b with PKR have been identified. Conclusions: The substrate interacting residues in ck1 alpha have been identified using the structural model of kinase substrate peptide. The PKR interacting NS5A 1b residues have also been predicted using PKR crystal structure, NS5A sequence analysis along with known experimental results. Functional significance and nature of interaction of interferon sensitivity determining region and variable region 3 of NS5A in different genotypes with PKR which was experimentally shown are also supported by the findings of evolutionary trace analysis. Designing inhibitors to prevent this interaction could enable the HCV genotype 1 infected patients respond well to interferon therapy.