7 resultados para Acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

em Indian Institute of Science - Bangalore - ��ndia


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Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzyme in folate metabolism and is involved in DNA synthesis, DNA repair and DNA methylation. Genetic polymorphisms of this enzyme have been shown to impact several diseases, including cancer. Leukemias are malignancies arising from rapidly proliferating hematopoietic cells having great requirement of DNA synthesis. This case-control study was undertaken to analyze the association of the MTHFR gene polymorphisms 677 C"T and 1298 A"C and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. Materials and Methods: Eighty-six patients aged below 15 years with a confirmed diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 99 matched controls were taken for this study. Analysis of the polymorphisms was done using the polymerase chain reaction -restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results: Frequency of MTHFR 677 CC and CT were 85.9% and 14.1% in the controls, and 84.9% and 15.1% in the cases. The 'T' allele frequency was 7% and 7.5% in cases and controls respectively. The frequency of MTHFR 1298 AA, AC, and CC were 28.3%, 55.6% and 16.1% for controls and 23.3%, 59.3% and 17.4% for cases respectively. The 'C' allele frequency for 1298 A→C was 43.9% and 47% respectively for controls and cases. The odds ratio (OR) for C677T was 1.08 (95% CI 0.48- 2.45, p = 0.851) and OR for A1298C was 1.29(95% CI 0.65-2.29, p = 0.46) and OR for 1298 CC was 1.31 (95% CI 0.53-3.26, p =0.56). The OR for the combined heterozygous status (677 CT and 1298 AC) was 1.94 (95% CI 0.58 -6.52, p = 0.286). Conclusion: The prevalence of 'T' allele for 677 MTHFR polymorphism was low in the population studied. There was no association between MTHFR 677 C→T and 1298 A→C gene polymorphisms and risk of ALL, which may be due to the small sample size.

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When rats were administered methyl isocyanate (MIC) by inhalation or subcutaneous route it produced severe hyperglycemia, clinical lactic acidosis, highly elevated plasma urea, and reduced plasma cholinesterase activity with unaltered erythrocytc acetyl cholinesterase activity. Irrespective of the route of administration, MIC also caused severe hypothermia, which was not ameliorated by prior administration of atropine sulphate. Acute toxic effects of MIC are essentially similar by either route except for the intensity of the effects

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Methyl isocyanate (MIC) interaction with the rabbit erythrocyte membrane increased the fluidity of the membrane and decreased the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes both in vitro and in vivo in rabbits intoxicated with MIC subcutaneously. MIC inhibited both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities of erythrocytes dose-dependently in vitro, while in vivo a decreased trend in ATPase activity with unaltered AChE activity was observed. MIC also caused significant decrease in plasma sodium level with corresponding increase in potassium level in rabbits. The observed effects are due to MIC, per se, as the hydrolysis products of MIC, methylamine and N,Nprime-dimethylurea did not affect the erythrocyte fluidity and enzymes activities both in vitro and in vivo while they increased the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in vivo in rabbits administered subcutaneously in equimolar concentration to MIC dosage. Inhibition of Na+-K+-dependent ATPase with altered permeability to cations and also probably water transport of plasma membrane due to MIC interaction are envisaged.

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A causative agent in approximately 40% of diarrhea] cases. still remains unidentified. Though many enteroviruses (EVs) are transmitted through fecal-oral route and replicate in the intestinal cells, their association with acute diarrhea has not so far been recognized due to lack of detailed epidemiological investigations. This long-term, detailed molecular epidemiological study aims to conclusively determine the association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with acute diarrhea in comaparison with rotavirus (RV) in children. Diarrheal stool specimens from 2161 children aged 0-2 years and 169 children between 2 and 9 years, and 1800 normal stool samples from age-matched healthy children between 0 and 9 years were examined during 2008-2012 for enterovirus (oral polio vaccine strains (OPVs) and NPEVs). Enterovirus serotypes were identified by complete VP1 gene sequence analysis. Enterovirus and rotavirus were detected in 19.01% (380/2330) and 13.82% (322/2330) diarrheal stools. During the study period, annual prevalence of EV- and RV-associated diarrhea ranged between 8% and 22%, but with contrasting seasonal prevalence with RV predominating during winter months and NPEV prevailing in other seasons. NPEVs are associated with epidemics-like outbreaks during which they are detected in up to 50% of diarrheic children, and in non-epidemic seasons in 0-10% of the patients. After subtraction of OPV-positive diarrheal cases (1.81%), while NPEVs are associated with about 17% of acute diarrhea, about 6% of healthy children showed asymptomatic NPEV excretion. Of 37 NPEV serotypes detected in diarrheal children, seven echovirus types 1, 7, 11, 13, 14, 30 and 33 are frequently observed, with Ell being more prevalent followed by E30. In conclusion, NPEVs are significantly associated with acute diarrhea, and NPEVs and rotavirus exhibit contrasting seasonal predominance. This study signifies the need for a new direction of research on enteroviruses involving systematic analysis of their contribution to diarrheal burden. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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In addition to its role in innate immunity, the intracellular pathogen sensor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) has been implicated in various inflammatory disorders, including the development of acute arthritis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of NOD2-responsive acute arthritis are not clear. In this study, we demonstrate that NOD2 signals to a cellular protein, Ly6/PLAUR domain-containing protein 6, in a receptor-interacting protein kinase 2-TGF-beta-activated kinase 1-independent manner to activate the WNT signaling cascade. Gain- or loss-of-function of the WNT signaling pathway in an in vivo experimental mouse arthritis model or in vitro systems established the role for WNT-responsive X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis during the development of acute arthritis. Importantly, WNT-stimulated X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis mediates the activation of inflammasomes. The subsequent caspase-1 activation and IL-1 beta secretion together contribute to the phenotypic character of the inflammatory condition of acute arthritis. Thus, identification of a role for WNT-mediated inflammasome activation during NOD2 stimulation serves as a paradigm to understand NOD2-associated inflammatory disorders and develop novel therapeutics.

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Nitric oxide ( NO) has been shown to be effective in cancer chemoprevention and therefore drugs that help generate NO would be preferable for combination chemotherapy or solo use. This study shows a new evidence of NO as a mediator of acute leukemia cell death induced by fisetin, a promising chemotherapeutic agent. Fisetin was able to kill THP-1 cells in vivo resulting in tumor shrinkage in the mouse xenograft model. Death induction in vitro was mediated by an increase in NO resulting in double strand DNA breaks and the activation of both the extrinsic and the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Double strand DNA breaks could be reduced if NO inhibitor was present during fisetin treatment. Fisetin also inhibited the downstream components of the mTORC1 pathway through downregulation of levels of p70 S6 kinase and inducing hypo-phosphorylation of S6 Ri P kinase, eIF4B and eEF2K. NO inhibition restored phosphorylation of downstream effectors of mTORC1 and rescued cells from death. Fisetin induced Ca2+ entry through L-type Ca2+ channels and abrogation of Ca2+ influx reduced caspase activation and cell death. NO increase and increased Ca2+ were independent phenomenon. It was inferred that apoptotic death of acute monocytic leukemia cells was induced by fisetin through increased generation of NO and elevated Ca2+ entry activating the caspase dependent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, manipulation of NO production could be viewed as a potential strategy to increase efficacy of chemotherapy in acute monocytic leukemia.

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We have recently reported significant association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with acute and persistent diarrhea (18-21% of total diarrheal cases), and non-diarrheal Increased Frequency of Bowel Movements (IFoBM-ND) (about 29% of the NPEV infections) in children and that the NPEV-associated diarrhea was as significant as rotavirus diarrhea. However, their diarrhea-causing potential is yet to be demonstrated in an animal model system. Since the determination of virus titers by the traditional plaque assay takes 4-7 days, there is a need for development of a rapid method for virus titer determination to facilitate active clinical research on enterovirus-associated diarrhea. The goal of this study is to develop a cell-based rapid detection and enumeration method and to demonstrate the diarrhea-inducing potential of purified and characterized non-polio enteroviruses, which were isolated from diarrheic children. Here we describe generation of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against purified strains belonging to different serotypes, and development of an enzyme-linked immuno focus assay (ELIFA) for detection and enumeration of live NPEV particles in clinical and purified virus samples, and a newborn mouse model for NPEV diarrhea. Plaque-purified NPVEs, belonging to different serotypes, isolated from children with diarrhea, were grown in cell culture and purified by isopycnic CsCl density gradient centrifugation. By ELIFA, NPEVs could be detected and enumerated within 12 h post-infection. Our results demonstrated that Coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) and CVB5 strains, isolated from diarrheic children, induced severe diarrhea in orally-inoculated 9-12 day-old mouse pups, fulfilling Koch's postulates. The methods described here would facilitate studies on NPEV-associated gastrointestinal disease. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.