1 resultado para Acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis
em Glasgow Theses Service
Campylobacter is a major cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with the highest number of infections being attributed to Campylobacter jejuni. C. jejuni is a Gram negative, spiral, motile bacterium that belongs to the campylobacterales order and is related to both Helicobacter spp. and Wolinella sp.. It has long been established that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and other benzimidazole derivatives display anti-Helicobacter activity in vitro. PPIs have in the past been shown to affect Helicobacter pylori growth, survival, motility, morphology, adhesion/invasion potential and susceptibility to conventional antibiotics. PPIs are highly effective drugs that are well tolerated, safe for prolonged daily use and are therefore in high demand. Both the PPIs omeprazole and lansoprazole featured in the top ten drugs prescribed in England in 2014. In 2014 Campylobacter was also the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal infection in Scotland, in England and Wales and also in Europe. It has previously been generally accepted that patients who are being treated with PPIs are more susceptible to enteric infections such as Campylobacter than people not taking PPIs. The effect of PPI exposure on H. pylori has been investigated rigorously in the past. A single previous study has hinted that PPIs may also be capable of affecting the related organism C. jejuni,but investigations have been extremely limited in comparison to those investigating the effect of PPIs on H. pylori. This study has investigated the in vitro effects of direct contact with PPIs on the biology ofC. jejuni. Exposure to the PPI pantoprazole was found to affect C. jejuni growth/survival, motility, morphology, biofilm formation, invasion potential and susceptibility to some conventional antibiotics. Microarray studies showed that the cmeA and Cj0561c genes were significantly up-regulated in response to pantoprazole exposure and a CmeABC deficient mutant was found to be significantly more susceptible to killing by pantoprazole than was the parent strain. Proteomic analysis indicated that the oxidative stress response of C. jejuni was induced following exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of pantoprazole. C. jejuni gene expression was assessed using qRT-PCR and the genes encoding for thiol peroxidase and GroEL co-chaperonin (both involved in the C. jejuni oxidative stress response) were found to be around four times higher in response to exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of pantoprazole. Experiments using the oxidative stress inhibitors thiourea (a hydroxyl radical quencher) and bipyridyl (a ferrous iron chelator) showed that killing by pantoprazole was not mediated by hydroxyl radical production.