2 resultados para STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES
em Universita di Parma
One of the challenges that concerns chemistry is the design of molecules able to modulate protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, since these are involved in many physiological and pathological processes. The interactions occurring between proteins and their natural counterparts can take place through reciprocal recognition of rather large surface areas, through recognition of single contact points and single residues, through inclusion of the substrates in specific, more or less deep binding sites. In many cases, the design of synthetic molecules able to interfere with the processes involving proteins can benefit from the possibility of exploiting the multivalent effect. Multivalency, widely spread in Nature, consists in the simultaneous formation between two entities (cell-cell, cell-protein, protein-protein) of multiple equivalent ligand-recognition site complexes. In this way the whole interaction results particularly strong and specific. Calixarenes furnish a very interesting scaffold for the preparation of multivalent ligands and in the last years calixarene-based ligands demonstrated their remarkable capability to recognize and inhibit or restore the activity of different proteins, with a high efficiency and selectivity in several recognition phenomena. The relevance and versatility of these ligands is due to the different exposition geometries of the binding units that can be explored exploiting the conformational properties of these macrocycles, the wide variety of functionalities that can be linked to their structure at different distances from the aromatic units and to their intrinsic multivalent nature. With the aim of creating new multivalent systems for protein targeting, the work reported in this thesis regards the synthesis and properties of glycocalix[n]arenes and guanidino calixarenes for different purposes. Firstly, a new bolaamphiphile glycocalixarene in 1,3-alternate geometry, bearing cellobiose, was synthesized for the preparation of targeted drug delivery systems based on liposomes. The formed stable mixed liposomes obtained by mixing the macrocycle with DOPC were shown to be able of exploiting the sugar units emerging from the lipid bilayer to agglutinate Concanavalin A, a lectin specific for glucose. Moreover, always thanks to the presence of the glycocalixarene in the layer, the same liposomes demonstrated through preliminary experiments to be uptaken by cancer cells overexpressing glucose receptors on their exterior surface more efficiently respect to simple DOPC liposomes lacking glucose units in their structure. Then a small library of glycocalix[n]arenes having different valency and geometry was prepared, for the creation of potentially active immunostimulants against Streptococcus pneumoniae, particularly the 19F serotype, one of the most virulent. These synthesized glycocalixarenes bearing β-N-acetylmannosamine as antigenic unit were compared with the natural polysaccharide on the binding to the specific anti-19F human polyclonal antibody, to verify their inhibition potency. Among all, the glycocalixarene based on the conformationally mobile calixarene resulted the more efficient ligand, probably due its major possibility to explore the antibody surface and dispose the antigenic units in a proper arrangement for the interaction process. These results pointed out the importance of how the different multivalent presentation in space of the glycosyl units can influence the recognition phenomena. At last, NMR studies, using particularly 1H-15N HSQC experiments, were performed on selected glycocalixarenes and guanidino calixarenes blocked in the cone geometry, in order to better understand protein-ligand interactions. The glycosylated compounds were studied with Ralstonia solanacearum lectin, in order to better understand the nature of the carbohydrate‐lectin interactions in solution. The series of cationic calixarene was employed with three different acidic proteins: GB1, Fld and alpha synuclein. Particularly GB1 and Fld were observed to interact with all five cationic calixarenes but showing different behaviours and affinities.
During my PhD course, I focused my research on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), in particular on the aspects of their computational design and development. This work led to the development of a new family of AMPs that I designed, starting from the amino acid sequence of a snake venom toxin, the cardiotoxin 1 (CTX-1) of Naja atra. Naja atra atra cardiotoxin 1, produced by Chinese cobra snakes belonging to Elapidae family, is included in the three-finger toxin family and exerts high cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity too. This toxin family is characterized by specific folding of three beta-sheet loops (“fingers”) extending from the central core and by four conserved disulfide bridges. Using as template the first loop of this toxin, different sequences of 20 amino acids linear cationic peptides have been designed in order to avoid toxic effects but to maintain and strengthen the antimicrobial activity. As a result, the sequence NCP-0 (Naja Cardiotoxin Peptide-0) was designed as ancestor and subsequently other 4 variant sequences of NCP0 were developed. These variant sequences have shown microbicidal activity towards a panel of reference strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and an enveloped virus. In particular, the sequence designed as NCP-3 (Naja Cardiotoxin Peptide-3) and its variants NCP-3a and NCP-3b have shown the best antimicrobial activity together with low cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells and low hemolytic activity. Bactericidal activity has been demonstrated by minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assay at values below 10 μg/ml for Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Acinetobacter baumannii ( clinical isolates), Moraxella catharralis ATCC 25238, MRSA ATCC 43400, while towards Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus hirae ATCC 10541 and Streptococcus agalactiae ATCC 13813 the bactericidal activity was demonstrated even below 1.6 μg/ml concentration. This potent antimicrobial activity was confirmed even for unicellular fungi Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Malassezia pachydermatis (MBC 32.26-6.4 μg/ml), and also against the fast-growing mycobacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis DSMZ 43756 and Mycobacterium fortuitum DSMZ 46621 (MBC 100 μg/ml). Moreover, NCP-3 has shown a virucidal activity on the enveloped virus Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) belonging to herpesviridae family. The bactericidal activity is maintained in a high salt concentration (125 and 250 mM NaCl) medium and PB +20% Mueller Hinton Medium for E. coli, MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference strains. Considering these in vitro obtained data, we propose NCP-3 and its variants NCP-3a and NCP-3b as promising antimicrobial candidates. For this reason, the whole novel AMPs family has been protected by a national patent (n°102015000015951).